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200 Tolarjev 1992, Slovenia

in Krause book Number: 15a
Years of issue: 22.02.1993
Edition: --
Signatures: Guverner: France Arhar, Član Sveta Banke: Jurij Kleindienst
Serie: 1992 Issue
Specimen of: 15.01.1992
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 144 x 72
Printer: De la Rue currency,Gateshead

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

200 Tolarjev 1992

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Jacobus Gallus.

Avers:

200 Tolarjev 1992

Jacobus Gallus

Jacobus Gallus Carniolus (a.k.a. Jacob(us) Handl, Jacob(us) Händl, Jacob(us) Gallus; Slovene: Jakob Petelin Kranjski) (3 July 1550 – 18 July 1591) was a late-Renaissance composer of Slovene ethnicity. Born in Carniola, which at the time was one of the Habsburg lands in the Holy Roman Empire, he lived and worked in Moravia and Bohemia during the last decade of his life.

Gallus may have been named Jakob Petelin at birth. Petelin means "rooster"; handl and gallus mean the same in German and Latin, respectively. He was probably born in Reifnitz (now Ribnica, southern Slovenia), although Slovene folk tradition also claims his birthplace to be at Šentviška Gora in the Slovenian Littoral. He used the Latin form of his name, to which he often added the adjective Carniolus, thus giving credit to his homeland Carniola.

Gallus most likely was educated at the Cistercian Stična Monastery in Carniola. He left Carniola sometime between 1564 and 1566, traveling first to Austria, and later to Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia. For some time he lived at the Benedictine Melk Abbey in Lower Austria. He was a member of the Viennese court chapel in 1574, and was choirmaster (Kapellmeister) to the bishop of Olomouc between 1579 (or 1580) and 1585. From 1585 to his death he worked in Prague as organist to the Church of St. John on the Balustrade (Czech: Sv. Jan na Zábradlí). Gallus died on 18 July 1591 in Prague.

Gallus represented the Counter-Reformation in Bohemia, mixing the polyphonic style of the High Renaissance Franco-Flemish School with the style of the Venetian School. His output was both sacred and secular, and hugely prolific: over 500 works have been attributed to him. Some are for large forces, with multiple choirs of up to 24 independent parts.

His most notable work is the six-part Opus musicum, 1587, a collection of 374 motets that would eventually cover the liturgical needs of the entire ecclesiastical year. The motets were printed in Prague printing house Jiří Nigrin, which also published 16 of his 20 extant masses. The motet O magnum mysterium comes from the first volume (printed in 1586) which covers the period from the first Sunday of Advent to the Septuagesima. This motet for 8 voices shows evidence of influence by the Venetian polychoral style, with its use of the coro spezzato technique.

His wide-ranging, eclectic style blended archaism and modernity. He rarely used the cantus firmus technique, preferring the then-new Venetian polychoral manner, yet he was equally conversant with earlier imitative techniques. Some of his chromatic transitions foreshadowed the breakup of modality; his five-voice motet Mirabile mysterium contains chromaticism worthy of Carlo Gesualdo. He enjoyed word painting in the style of the madrigal, yet he could write the simple "Ecce quomodo moritur justus" later used by George Frideric Handel in his funeral anthem The Ways of Zion Do Mourn.

His secular output, about 100 short pieces, was published in the collections Harmoniae morales (Prague 1589 and 1590) and Moralia (Nuremberg 1596). Some of these works were madrigals in Latin, an unusual language for the form (most madrigals were in Italian); others were songs in German, and others were compositions in Latin.

Positiv

In left part of banknote is the German Positive organ, end of XVI - beginning of XVII century.

A positive organ (also positiv organ, positif organ, portable organ, chair organ, or simply positive, positiv, positif, or chair) (from the Latin verb ponere, "to place") is a small, usually one-manual, pipe organ that is built to be more or less mobile. It was common in sacred and secular music between the X and the XVIII centuries, in chapels and small churches, as a chamber organ and for the basso continuo in ensemble works. The smallest common kind of positive, hardly higher than the keyboard, is called chest or box organ and is especially popular nowadays for basso continuo work; positives for more independent use tend to be higher.

From the Middle Ages through Renaissance and Baroque the instrument came in many different forms, including processional and tabletop organs that have profited relatively less from the renewed popularity the type in general has enjoyed from the Orgelbewegung onwards.

Denominations in numerals are at the bottom and in top right corner. In words - centered.

Revers:

200 Tolarjev 1992

Slovenska filharmonija

In the left hand area of the back of the banknote the front side of the Slovene Philharmonic Hall is printed by the intaglio method.

The building of the Philharmonic, which faces the eastern part of the square, was built in 1888-1891 at the site of the first Slovenian theater, built in the XVIII century and burned down in the fire. As early as 1701, "Academia Philarmonicorum" was founded in Ljubljana, the Philharmonic Academy, the forerunner of the present Slovenian Philharmonic. Her honorary members were Beethoven, Paganini, Brahms, Haydn, and the celebrated conductor Gustav Mahler during the whole year (1881-1882) led the then Ljubljana Provincial Theater.

Musical traditions on the Slavic land have long roots. Slovenian musician Yu. Slatkonja (1456-1522) became the organizer and head of the Vienna court chapel, and Slovene J. Petelin-Gallus (1550-1591) created a choral style "a chapel", which marked in European music a transition from polyphony (polyglot) to homophony (a multi-voice with the emphasising of one voice). Today, Ljubljana is famous for its two symphonic orchestras (Slovenian Philharmonic and RTV Slovenia) and a number of first-class performers. And the most popular and massive kind of folk musical creativity is choral singing. Today, there are 850 adults and 120 youth amateur choirs in the country.

The middle of the banknote bears a musical notation.

It is - Jacobus Gallus, the fragment of the motet from "Harmoniae Morales" (for four voices), party for tenor (Liber III. — XLI. Quid).

Denominations in numerals are at the bottom and in top right corner. In words - centered.

Comments:

Designer: Miljenko Licul and coauthors.

Painter of the portrait: Rudi Španzel.

The banknote printed on paper, made in Slovenian city Radeče.