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50 Francs 1944, Luxembourg

in Krause book Number: 46
Years of issue: 1944
Edition:
Signatures: Le Ministre des Finances: Pierre Dupong (16.07.1926 - 23.12.1953)
Serie: 1943 & ND (1944) "Grand Duchess Charlotte" Issue
Specimen of: 1943
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 145 х 86
Printer: Bradbury, Wilkinson & Company Limited, New Malden

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

50 Francs 1944

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg.

Avers:

50 Francs 1944

Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg

Charlotte (Charlotte Adelgonde Élise/Elisabeth Marie Wilhelmine; 23 January 1896 – 9 July 1985) reigned as Grand Duchess of Luxembourg from 1919 until her abdication in 1964.

She acceded to the throne on 14 January 1919 following the abdication of her sister, Marie-Adélaïde, due to political pressure. There had been controversies surrounding some of Marie-Adélaïde actions and calls for her abdication by some began to appear in parliament due to her being seen as cordial to the Germans that occupied Luxembourg during the First World War. Later, a double referendum on whether to retain the monarchy or become a republic and on the economic orientation of the country was held on 28 September 1919. In it, majority voted to retain Charlotte as grand duchess.

She married Prince Felix of Bourbon-Parma on 6 November 1919 with whom she would have six children. Following the 1940 German invasion of Luxembourg during the Second World War, Charlotte went into exile first in France, then Portugal, the United Kingdom, and North America. While in London, she began making broadcasts to the people of Luxembourg. She would return to Luxembourg in April 1945.

She abdicated in 1964 and was succeeded by her son Jean. Charlotte died from cancer on 9 July 1985.

На Великой Герцогине Шарлотте следующие украшения:

tiara

Grand Duchess Marie-Adélaïde's Tiara, (which is known by other names too, including the Nassau Sapphire Tiara and the Grand Duchess Adelaide Tiara, take your pick) features a cushion-cut sapphire surrounded by diamonds as its removable center, with a classic diamond wreath design on either side. A top line of diamonds gives the tiara a kokoshnik feel, and it can also be worn with an additional rivière of diamonds on the bottom.

The tiara dates from about 1865-1870. It belonged to Adelheid-Marie of Anhalt-Dessau (1833-1916), who was the wife of Grand Duke Adolphe of Luxembourg. From her, the tiara began to pass down through the generations of the grand ducal family. It was associated with her granddaughter, Grand Duchess Marie-Adélaïde (1894-1924), who took the throne at the age of 17 and whose short reign did not survive the turmoil of World War I. In 1919, she abdicated in favor of her sister, Grand Duchess Charlotte (1896-1985). Charlotte also wore the tiara, mostly in her earlier years.

The tiara is part of the Hausschmuck, the grand ducal family’s trust. Like family foundations in other countries, that means the tiara is not personally owned by any single family member and will remain with the family for years to come. (orderofsplendor.blogspot.de)

Double Diamond Riviere Necklaces

Double Diamond Riviere Necklaces are the favorite of Grand Duchess Charlotte who regularly wore them fro all kinds of bejewelled occasions.The smalles of the two necklaces, which traditionally are worn together, features 35 diamonds, while the larger one consist of 45 stone, mounted in gold and silver. Originating in XIX century, may of the stonesused to create the necklace can already be found in the jewellery inventory of House of Nassau of June 1859. (www.luxarazzi.com)

coat

Centered is the Middle coat of arms of Luxembourg.

The coat of arms of Luxembourg has its origins in the Middle Ages and was derived from the arms of the Duchy of Limburg, in modern-day Belgium and the Netherlands. In heraldic language, the arms are described as: Barry of ten Argent and Azure, a Lion rampant queue forchée Gules crowned, armed and langued Or.

There are greater, middle and lesser versions of the coat of arms of Luxembourg. The greater coat of arms has two reguardant and crowned lions as supporters, the Dynastic Order (the Order of the Oak Crown) and all surrounded by hermine mantling crowned with a heraldic royal crown (the crown used by the Grand Duke). The middle coat of arms has the supporters, the order and the crown. The lesser coat of arms has the crown and the escutcheon without external ornaments.

In lower corners are the grapes, as symbol of fertility.

Denominations in numerals are in three corners. In words - centered.

Revers:

50 Francs 1944

Vianden castel

Vianden Castle (French: Château de Vianden, German: Burg Vianden Luxembourgish: Buerg Veianen), located in Vianden in the north of Luxembourg, is one of the largest fortified castles west of the Rhine. With origins dating from the X century, the castle was built in the Romanesque style from the XI to XIV centuries. Gothic transformations and trimmings were added at the end of this period. A Renaissance mansion was added in the XVII century but thereafter the castle was allowed to fall into ruins. It has, however, recently been fully restored and is open to visitors.

Set on a rocky promontory, the castle stands at a height of 310 meters, dominating the town of Vianden and overlooking the River Our about a hundred meters below. The castle and its dependent buildings have a total length of 90 meters.

The castle was built on the site of an ancient Roman castellum. The basement appears to have been a Carolingian refuge. Historically, the first Count of Vianden was mentioned in 1090. The castle continued to be the seat of the Vianden's influential counts until the beginning of the XV century.

Around 1100, a square keep was built as well as a kitchen, a chapel and residential rooms indicating that an aristocratic family lived there at the time. During the first half of the XII century, a new residential tower and a prestigious decagonal chapel were added while the palace itself was extended. At the beginning of the XIII century, a new two-storey palace measuring 10 by 13 meters was built with a sumptuous gallery connecting it to the chapel. These additions show how the Counts of Vianden sought to rival the House of Luxembourg. The last great change took place in the middle of the XIII century when the entire castle was adapted to reflect the Gothic style. Finally, in 1621 the Nassau Mansion with its banqueting hall and bedroom was built by Prince Maurice of Orange-Nassau-Vianden in the Renaissance style replacing a damaged side wing of the XI century keep.

During the XVI century, the castle was more or less abandoned by the Counts of Vianden who had gained the additional title of the House of Nassau-Orange after Elisabeth, the granddaughter of Henry II of Vianden had willed the County of Vianden together with its castle to her cousin, Count Engelbert of Nassau. This initiated the long association between Vianden and the House of Nassau. In 1564, William the Silent, Prince of Orange, Count of Nassau and of Vianden, took an initial interest in Vianden where he built the first blast furnace in Luxembourg but left in 1566 to lead the Dutch revolt against King Philip II of Spain. As a result, Philip confiscated the castle and conferred it on Peter Ernst von Mansfeld, the governor of Luxembourg.

In 1820, King William I sold the castle to Wenzel Coster, an alderman, for 3,200 florins. Coster started to demolish the building, selling off the tiles from the roof, the wooden panelling, the doors and the windows piece by piece. Soon the castle was a ruin.

Such was the indignation of his subjects at the mistreatment of the castle that in 1827 the king, himself a Count of Vianden, repurchased the ruin for 1,100 florins hoping to begin restoration work. Unfortunately, his time was taken up with the Belgian Revolution of 1830 and it was not until 1851 that Prince Henry of the Netherlands reconstructed the chapel at his own expense, giving it a lower roof. When Adolphe of Nassau-Weilbourg became Grand Duke of Luxembourg in 1890, he charged Bobo Ebhardt, a German specialist, with further restoration. Although Ebhardt succeeded in making important progress, his work was interrupted by the First World War.

During the Second World War, in the Battle of Vianden which took place on November 19, 1944, the castle was ably defended against the Waffen-SS by members of the Luxembourgish anti-Nazi resistance, and proved to have some military value even under conditions of modern warfare.

It was not until 1962 that consideration was again given to restoration, resulting in reconstruction of the Armory. Further progress was hampered by questions of the castle's ownership. Only after Grand Duke Jean had ceded the castle to the State in 1977 did work continue. In 1978, attention turned to rebuilding the walls, the gables and the roof. In 1979, the chapel was also given a new roof and restored to reflect its original Gothic appearance, which had been lost during the fire of 1667 caused by lightning. The white tower was also reinforced and topped with a conical roof. Finally, after the Nassau Mansion was fully restored in 1981-1982, efforts were made to refurnish the interior as authentically as possible. This work was completed in 1990.

The castle is open to visitors throughout the year from 10:00 to 16:00, every day. In March and October, the closing time is extended to 5 pm and in the summer months to 6 pm. Guided tours are also available.

Denominations in numerals are on right side and in all corners. In words at the bottom.

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