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100 Rupees 2009, India

in Krause book Number: 98e
Years of issue: 25.01.2009
Edition: --
Signatures: Governor: Mr. Duvvuri Subbarao (in office from 05.09.2008 till 04.09.2013)
Serie: Government of India
Specimen of: 2002
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 157 х 73
Printer: Government of India Mint and the Security Printing Press, Nasik, India

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

100 Rupees 2009

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Mahatma Gandhi and denomination 100.

Avers:

100 Rupees 2009

watermark

The engraving on banknote is made after this photo of the end of 1930s.

Mahātmā Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule. Employing nonviolent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. The honorific Mahātmā (Sanskrit: "high-souled", "venerable")—applied to him first in 1914 in South Africa is now used worldwide. In India, he is also called Bapu ji (Gujarati: endearment for father, papa) and Gandhi ji. He is unofficially called the Father of the Nation.

Born and raised in a Hindu merchant caste family in coastal Gujarat, western India, and trained in law at the Inner Temple, London, Gandhi first employed nonviolent civil disobedience as an expatriate lawyer in South Africa, in the resident Indian community's struggle for civil rights. After his return to India in 1915, he set about organising peasants, farmers, and urban labourers to protest against excessive land-tax and discrimination. Assuming leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns for various social causes and for achieving Swaraj or self-rule.

Gandhi famously led Indians in challenging the British-imposed salt tax with the 400 km (250 mi) Dandi Salt March in 1930, and later in calling for the British to Quit India in 1942. He was imprisoned for many years, upon many occasions, in both South Africa and India. He lived modestly in a self-sufficient residential community and wore the traditional Indian dhoti and shawl, woven with yarn hand-spun on a charkha. He ate simple vegetarian food, and also undertook long fasts as a means of both self-purification and political protest.

Gandhi's vision of an independent India based on religious pluralism, however, was challenged in the early 1940s by a new Muslim nationalism which was demanding a separate Muslim homeland carved out of India. Eventually, in August 1947, Britain granted independence, but the British Indian Empire was partitioned into two dominions, a Hindu-majority India and Muslim-majority Pakistan. As many displaced Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs made their way to their new lands, religious violence broke out, especially in the Punjab and Bengal. Eschewing the official celebration of independence in Delhi, Gandhi visited the affected areas, attempting to provide solace. In the months following, he undertook several fasts unto death to stop religious violence. The last of these, undertaken on 12 January 1948 when he was 78, also had the indirect goal of pressuring India to pay out some cash assets owed to Pakistan. Some Indians thought Gandhi was too accommodating. Among them was Nathuram Godse, a Hindu nationalist, who assassinated Gandhi on 30 January 1948 by firing three bullets into his chest.

Gandhi's birthday, 2 October, is commemorated in India as Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday, and worldwide as the International Day of Nonviolence.

RBI seal

In lower right corner is the seal of Indian reserve Bank.

The selection of the Bank's common seal to be used as the emblem of the Bank on currency notes, cheques and publications, was an issue that had to be taken up at an early stage of the Bank's formation.

The general ideas on the seal were as follows:

1) The seal should emphasise the Governmental status of the Bank, but not too closely

2) It should have something Indian in the design

3) It should be simple, artistic and heraldically correct

4) The design should be such that it could be used without substantial alteration for letter heading, etc.

For this purpose, various seals, medals and coins were examined. The East India Company "Double Mohur", with the sketch of the Lion and Palm Tree, was found most suitable; however, it was decided to replace the lion by the tiger, the latter being regarded as the more characteristic animal of India!

To meet the immediate requirements in connection with the stamping of the Bank's share certificates, the work was entrusted to a Madras firm. The Board, at its meeting on February 23, 1935, approved the design of the seal but desired improvement of the animal's appearance. Unfortunately it was not possible to make any major changes at that stage. But the Deputy Governor, Sir James Taylor, did not rest content with this. He took keen interest in getting fresh sketches prepared by the Government of India Mint and the Security Printing Press, Nasik. As a basis for good design, he arranged for a photograph to be taken of the statue of the tiger on the entrance gate at Belvedere, Calcutta. Something or the other went wrong with the sketches so that Sir James, writing in September I938, was led to remark:

"...... s tree is all right but his tiger looks too like some species of dog, and I am afraid that a design of a dog and a tree would arouse derision among the irreverent. .....'s tiger is distinctly good but the tree has spoiled it. The stem is too long and the branches too spidery, but I should have thought that by putting a firm line under the feet of his tiger and making his tree stronger and lower we could get quite a good result from his design".

Later, with further efforts, it was possible to have better proofs prepared by the Security Printing Press, Nasik. However, it was eventually decided not to make any change in the existing seal of the Bank, and the new sketches came to be used as an emblem for the Bank's currency notes, letter-heads, cheques and publications issued by the Bank.

Source: Reserve Bank of India.

coat of arms of India coat of arms of India

In lower left corner is the coat of arms of India.

This is the famous original sandstone sculpted Lion Capital of Ashoka preserved at Sarnath Museum, which was originally erected around 250 BCE atop an Ashoka Pillar at Sarnath. The angle from which this picture has been taken, minus the inverted bell-shaped lotus flower, has been adopted as the National Emblem of India showing the Horse on the left and the Bull on the right of the Ashoka Chakra in the circular base on which the four Indian lions are standing back to back. On the far side there is an Elephant and a Lion instead. The wheel "Ashoka Chakra" from its base has been placed onto the center of the National Flag of India.

The coat of arms of India is the symbol of India, formally called as "National emblem". It has four Indian lions standing on a circle. The idea for this coat of arms was taken from the Sarnath Lion Capital that was built by an Indian emperor named Ashoka. It's a pillar in the city named Sarnath. Ashoka built it around 250 BC using a single piece of polished sandstone. The symbol is invariably used on all types of currency notes, passports and coins of India. In the two dimensional view of this symbol, one can only see three lions, facing left right and straight. The fourth one remains hidden behind the three.

The lions represent royalty and pride. The wheel beneath the lions is called the Ashoka Chakra or Dharmachakra comes from Buddhism, representing Truth and Honesty. The horse and the bull probably stand for the Strength (Mental) of the people of India. There are four Ashoka Chakras in total around the emblem and two horses and bulls each. The verse written below, Satyamev Jayate is a very popular and revered saying in the ancient language Sanskrit. It can be divided phonetically into three words - Satyam, which means truth, Ev or aev, that is, only and Jayate which means wins or won. The whole verse can be translated as "Only the truth will win or wins". This verse describes the power of honesty and truth in society and religion. You can lie to your friends, family, even your God, but you cannot lie to yourself. Your conscience will forever be stained.

The verse can also be translated as "The truth alone triumphs". Meaning that even after all the lies and deceptions with which we have been fooled, the truth will finally emerge victorious.

Denominations in numerala are in top corners and centered, in words - centered.

Revers:

100 Rupees 2009

languages

On left side are the inscriptions of denomination in Indian languages.

himālayaḥ

Indian Himalayas in clouds.

The Himalayas, or Himalaya, (हिमालयः, हिमालय) form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.

The Himalayan range has many of the Earth's highest peaks, including the highest, Mount Everest. The Himalayas include over fifty mountains exceeding 7,200 meters (23,600 ft.) in elevation, including ten of the fourteen 8000 meters peaks. By contrast, the highest peak outside Asia – Aconcagua, in the Andes – is 6,961 meters (22,838 ft.) tall.

The Himalayan range is bordered on the northwest by the Karakoram and Hindu Kush ranges, on the north by the Tibetan Plateau, and on the south by the Indo-Gangetic Plain. The Himalayas are distinct from the other great ranges of central Asia, although sometimes the term Himalaya is loosely used to include the Karakoram and some of the other ranges. The Himalayas – inhabited by 52.7 million people – are spread across five countries: India, Nepal, Bhutan, China and Pakistan, with the first three countries having sovereignty over most of the range. Some of the world's major rivers, the Indus, the Ganges, and the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra, rise in the Himalayas, and their combined drainage basin is home to roughly 600 million people. The Himalayas have profoundly shaped the cultures of the Indian subcontinent; many Himalayan peaks are sacred in Hinduism and Buddhism.

Lifted by the subduction of the Indian tectonic plate under the Eurasian Plate, the Himalayan mountain range runs, west-northwest to east-southeast, in an arc 2,400 kilometers (1,500 mi.) long. Its western anchor, Nanga Parbat, lies just south of the northernmost bend of Indus river. Its eastern anchor, Namcha Barwa, is just west of the great bend of the Tsangpo river. From the north, the chain is limited by a 50–60 kilometers (31–37 mi.) wide tectonic valley called the Indus-Tsangpo Suture.[5] Towards the south the arc of the Himalaya is ringed by the very low Gangetic plain.[6] The range varies in width from 350 kilometers (220 mi.) in the west (Kashmir) to 150 kilometers (93 mi.) in the east (Arunachal Pradesh).

Denomination in numeral is on left side.

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