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100 Kroner 2017, Norway

no number in katalog -
Years of issue: 30.05.2017
Edition:
Signatures: Norges sentralbanksjef: Øystein Olsen, Hovedkasserer: Trond Eklund
Serie: Eighth series
Specimen of: 2014
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 134 x 70
Printer: F. C. Oberthur, Chantepie

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

100 Kroner 2017

Description

Watermark:

puffin puffin

The Atlantic puffin and denomination 200. Watermark is made after photo by Tom Schandy.

About Atlantic puffin, please, read obverse description.

Avers:

100 Kroner 2017

The motive for all banknotes of the new series was the theme "The Sea".

A banknote of 100 Kroner displays the theme "The sea that bring us out into the world".

Gokstadskipet

On foreground is The Gokstad ship (Gokstadskipet).

The Gokstad ship is a IX-century Viking ship found in a burial mound at Gokstad in Sandar, Sandefjord, Vestfold, Norway. It is currently on display at the Viking Ship Museum in Oslo, Norway.

The site where the boat was found, situated on arable land, had long been named Gokstadhaugen or Kongshaugen (from the Old Norse words konungr meaning king and haugr meaning mound), although the relevance of its name had been discounted as folklore, as other sites in Norway bear similar names. In 1880, sons of the owner of Gokstad farm, having heard of the legends surrounding the site, uncovered the bow of a boat while digging in the still frozen ground. As word of the find got out, Nicolay Nicolaysen, then President of the Society for the Preservation of Ancient Norwegian Monuments, reached the site during February 1880. Having ascertained that the find was indeed that of an ancient artifact, he liaised for the digging to be stopped. Nicolaysen later returned and established that the mound still measured 50 meters by 43 meters, although its height had been diminished down to 5 meters by constant years of ploughing. With his team, he began excavating the mound from the side rather than from the top down, and on the second day of digging found the bow of the ship.

The Gokstad ship is clinker-built and constructed largely of oak. The ship was intended for warfare, trade, transportation of people and cargo. The ship is 23.80 meters (78.1 ft.) long and 5.10 m. (16.7 ft.) wide. It is the largest in the Viking Ship Museum in Oslo. The ship was steered by a quarter rudder fastened to a large block of wood attached to the outside of the hull and supported by an extra stout rib. The block is known as the wart, and is fastened by osiers, knotted on the outside passed through both the rudder and wart to be firmly anchored in the ship.

There are 16 tapered planks per side. The garboard planks are near vertical where they attach to the keel. The garboard planks are narrow and remain only slightly wider to take the turn of the bilge. The topside planks are progressively wider. Each oak plank is slightly tapered in cross section to allow it to overlap about 30mm the plank above and below in normal clinker (lapstrake) style. Iron rivets are about 180 mm apart where the planks lie straight and about 125 mm. apart where the planks turn.

At the bow, all of the planks taper to butt the stem. The stem is carved from a single curved oak log to form the cutwater and has one land for each plank. The inside of the stem is hollowed into a v shape so the inside of the rivets can be reached during construction or repair. Each of the crossbeams has a ledge cut about 25 mm wide and deep to take a removable section of decking. Sea chests were placed on top of the decking to use when rowing. Most likely on longer voyages sea chests were secured below decks to act as ballast when sailing. The centre section of the keel has little rocker and together with flat midships transverse section the hull shape is suited to medium to flat water sailing. When sailing downwind in strong winds and waves, directional control would be poor, so it is likely that some reefing system was used to reduce sail area. In such conditions the ship would take water aboard at an alarming rate if sailed at high speed.

The ship was built to carry 32 oarsmen, and the oar holes could be hatched down when the ship was under sail. It utilized a square sail of approximately 110 square metres (1,200 sq. ft.), which, it is estimated, could propel the ship to over 12 knots (22 km/h.; 14 mph.). The mast could be raised and lowered. While the ship was traveling in shallow water, the rudder could be raised very quickly by undoing the fastening. Dendrochronological dating suggests that the ship was built of timber that was felled around 890 AD. This period is the height of Norse expansion in Dublin, Ireland and York, England. The Gokstad ship was commissioned at the end of the IX century during the reign of King Harald Fairhair. The ship could carry a crew of 40 men but could carry a maximum of 70. The ship's design has been demonstrated to be very seaworthy.

X-Bow

On background is Super-yacht with bow design X-Bow visible.

The X-BOW® is a bow concept developed by the Sunnmøre-based company Ulstein Design & Solutions AS. The bow is inverted abaft so that the ship is longest at the waterline. In principle, a hull constructed with this design will have greater displacement volume starting from the waterline than conventional hulls.

X-BOW® was launched in 2005. That same year, the bow concept received the Norwegian TechAward and was first used on a ship in May 2006.

The greater displacement volume of X-BOW® hulls makes them better able to handle oncoming waves than conventional hulls. The bow floats over the oncoming waves that a conventional bow would need to pierce through. This reduces accelerations and provides smoother sailing for crew members. At the same time, the reduction in drag reduces fuel consumption.

The X-STERN™-design is a continuation of X-BOW®. X-STERN™ applies the same principles to the aft ship, and enables the ships to hold their position by placing their stern towards the weather. (www.norges-bank.no)

puffin puffin

On the banknote are shown The Atlantic puffin (two times) - in profile (in the upper right corner), flying - on right side (reverse).

The Atlantic puffin (Fratercula arctica), also known as the common puffin, is a species of seabird in the auk family. It is the only puffin native to the Atlantic Ocean; two related species, the tufted puffin and the horned puffin, are found in the northeastern Pacific. The Atlantic puffin breeds in Iceland, Norway, Greenland, Newfoundland and many North Atlantic islands, and as far south as Maine in the west and the British Isles in the east. Although it has a large population and a wide range, the species has declined rapidly, at least in parts of its range, resulting in it being rated as vulnerable by the IUCN. On land, it has the typical upright stance of an auk. At sea, it swims on the surface and feeds mainly on small fish, which it catches by diving underwater, using its wings for propulsion.

This puffin has a black crown and back, pale grey cheek patches and white underparts. Its broad, boldly marked red and black beak and orange legs contrast with its plumage. It moults while at sea in the winter and some of the bright-coloured facial characteristics are lost. The external appearance of the adult male and female are identical except that the male is usually slightly larger. The juvenile has similar plumage but its cheek patches are dark grey. The juvenile does not have brightly coloured head ornamentation, its bill is less broad and is dark-grey with a yellowish-brown tip, and its legs and feet are also dark. Puffins from northern populations are typically larger than their counterparts in southern parts of the range. It is generally considered that these populations are different subspecies.

Spending the autumn and winter in the open ocean of the cold northern seas, the Atlantic puffin returns to coastal areas at the start of the breeding season in late spring. It nests in cliff top colonies, digging a burrow in which a single white egg is laid. The chick mostly feeds on whole fish and grows rapidly. After about six weeks it is fully fledged and makes its way at night to the sea. It swims away from the shore and does not return to land for several years.

Colonies are mostly on islands where there are no terrestrial predators but adult birds and newly fledged chicks are at risk of attacks from the air by gulls and skuas. Sometimes a bird such as an Arctic skua will harass a puffin arriving with a beakful of fish, causing it to drop its catch. The striking appearance, large colourful bill, waddling gait and behaviour of this bird have given rise to nicknames such as "clown of the sea" and "sea parrot". It is the official bird symbol for the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.

flag

Also - right of center - Signal flag: Letter O (Oscar). Meaning: "Man overboard." (often attached to the man overboard pole on boats). With a sinister hoist, the semaphore flag.

Denominations in numerals are in top left corner and lower right. In words on top.

Revers:

100 Kroner 2017

Cargo ship

Pixel motif on the horizon: Cargo ship. Nearby (right of ship and lower, right) - the Globe.

Beaufort scale

Cubic pattern: 3.4 m/s. Organic pattern: Light breeze. Crests begin to break. (Beaufort scale - level 2).

Ὠρίων

On background is Orion (constellation) visible.

Orion is a prominent constellation located on the celestial equator and visible throughout the world. It is one of the most conspicuous and recognizable constellations in the night sky. It was named after Orion, a hunter in Greek mythology. Its brightest stars are Rigel (Beta Orionis) and Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis), a blue-white and a red supergiant, respectively.

Orion is very useful as an aid to locating other stars. By extending the line of the Belt southeastward, Sirius (α CMa) can be found; northwestward, Aldebaran (α Tau). A line eastward across the two shoulders indicates the direction of Procyon (α CMi). A line from Rigel through Betelgeuse points to Castor and Pollux (α Gem and β Gem). Additionally, Rigel is part of the Winter Circle asterism. Sirius and Procyon, which may be located from Orion by following imaginary lines (see map), also are points in both the Winter Triangle and the Circle.

Orion as depicted in Urania's Mirror, a set of constellation cards published in London c.1825

Orion's seven brightest stars form a distinctive hourglass-shaped asterism, or pattern, in the night sky. Four stars - Rigel, Betelgeuse, Bellatrix and Saiph—form a large roughly rectangular shape, in the center of which lie the three stars of Orion's Belt - Alnitak, Alnilam and Mintaka. Coincidentally, these seven stars are among the most distant that can easily be seen with the naked eye. Descending from the 'belt' is a smaller line of three stars (the middle of which is in fact not a star but the Orion Nebula), known as the hunter's 'sword'.

Many of the stars are luminous hot blue super-giants, with the stars of the belt and sword forming the Orion OB1 Association. Standing out by its red hue, Betelgeuse may nevertheless be a runaway member of the same group.

Denominations in numerals are in lower left and top right corners. In words at the bottom.

Comments:

The motifs on all of the new banknote series denominations show the importance of the sea for the prosperity and welfare of the people of Norway. The primary motif on the front side of the 100-krone banknote is a Viking ship, while on the 200-krone note, a cod is portrayed facing left. On the back sides, abstract representations of a cargo ship (100-krone note) and a fishing boat (200-krone note) can be seen on the horizon.

The banknotes were designed by Norges Bank's banknote designers Arild Yttri and Morten Johansen. The designs on the front sides of the banknotes are based on the proposal from Metric Design and Terje Tønnessen. The proposals for the back of the notes were submitted by Snøhetta Design. The primary motifs were drawn by the artist Sverre Morken. The Atlantic puffin watermark motif is based on a photo taken by photographer Tom Schandy.

The new 100-krone and 200-krone banknotes were printed by Oberthur Fiduciare in France.

The official launch of the new banknotes will take place in Svolvær on 30 May 2017 at 2.00 p.m. From that time, the new 100- and 200-krone banknotes will be made available to banks at Norges Bank's central bank depots in Tromsø, Trondheim, Bergen, Stavanger and Oslo.

"There are very few places that reflect the primary motifs of the 100-krone and 200-krone bank notes better than Lofoten. Abundant cod from the Lofoten fisheries has sustained people in Norway and abroad for centuries, and Lofoten has a history as a seat of power in the Viking Age. We are therefore delighted that the launch of the new banknotes will be marked in Lofoten," Governor Olsen said. (Norges Bank)