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10 Shillings 1974, Tanzania

in Krause book Number: 2b
Years of issue: 1974
Edition: 24 452 372
Signatures: Minister for Finance: Cleopa D. Msuya, Governor: Edwin I. Mtei
Serie: 1966 Issue
Specimen of: 14.06.1966
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 143 х 70
Printer: TDLR (Thomas de la Rue & Company), London

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

10 Shillings 1974

Description

Watermark:

Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi

The Masai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi), also spelled Maasai giraffe, also called Kilimanjaro giraffe, is the largest species of giraffe native to East Africa, also the tallest land mammal. The Masai giraffe can be found in central and southern Kenya and in Tanzania. It has distinctive, irregular, jagged, star-like blotches which extend to the hooves. A median lump is usually present in males.

It was described and given its binomial name Giraffa tippelskirchi by German zoologist Paul Matschie in 1898. The Masai giraffe was named in honor of Herr von Tippelskirch who was a member of a German scientific expedition in German East Africa to what is now northern Tanzania in 1896. Tippelskirch bought back the skin of a female Masai giraffe from near Lake Eyasi which was later on identified as Giraffa tippelskirchi. The IUCN currently recognizes only one species of giraffe with nine subspecies. However, alternative taxonomies have proposed Masai giraffes be considered a unique species.

The Masai giraffe is distinguished by jagged spots on its body, geographic range including southern Kenya, all of Tanzania, and the Luangwa Valley in Zambia, and genetic evidence. It is the largest-bodied giraffe species.

Avers:

10 Shillings 1974

Julius Kambarage Nyerere

Julius Kambarage Nyerere (13 April 1922 – 14 October 1999) was a Tanzanian anti-colonial activist, politician, and political theorist. He governed Tanganyika as its Prime Minister from 1961 to 1963 and then as its President from 1963 to 1964, after which he led its successor state, Tanzania, as its President from 1964 until 1985. He was a founding member of the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) party and later a member of the Chama Cha Mapinduzi party. Ideologically an African nationalist and African socialist, he promoted a political philosophy known as Ujamaa.

Born in Butiama, then in the British colony of Tanganyika, Nyerere was the son of a Zanaki chief. After completing his schooling in Tanganyika, he studied at Makerere College in Uganda and then Edinburgh University in Britain. Nyerere was known by the Swahili honorific Mwalimu or 'teacher', his profession prior to politics. He was also referred to as Baba wa Taifa (Father of the Nation). In 1954, he helped form the Tanganyika African National Union, which was instrumental in obtaining independence for Tanganyika.

In 1967, influenced by the ideas of African socialism, Nyerere issued the Arusha Declaration, which outlined his vision of ujamaa (variously translated as "familyhood" or "socialism"; not to be confused with the Swahili word Umoja which means "unity"). Ujamaa was a concept that came to dominate Nyerere's policies. However, his policies led to economic decline, systematic corruption, and unavailability of goods. In the early 1970s, Nyerere ordered his security forces to forcibly transfer much of the population to collective farms and, because of opposition from villagers, often burned villages down.[citation needed] This campaign pushed the nation to the brink of starvation and made it dependent on foreign food aid. In 1985, after more than two decades in power, he relinquished power to his hand-picked successor, Ali Hassan Mwinyi. Nyerere left Tanzania as one of the poorest and most foreign aid-dependent countries in the world, although much progress in services such as health and education had nevertheless been achieved. He remained the chairman of the Chama Cha Mapinduzi for another five years until 1990. He died of leukemia in London, in 1999.

Nyerere is still a controversial figure in Tanzania. A cult of personality revolves around him and the country's Roman Catholic community have attempted to beatify him.

Syzygium aromaticum

In lower right corner are Cloves.

Cloves are the aromatic flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae, Syzygium aromaticum. They are native to the Maluku Islands in Indonesia, and are commonly used as a spice. Cloves are commercially harvested primarily in Indonesia, India, Madagascar, Zanzibar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Tanzania.

The clove tree is an evergreen tree that grows up to 8-12 m. tall, with large leaves and sanguine flowers grouped in terminal clusters. The flower buds initially have a pale hue, gradually turn green, then transition to a bright red when ready for harvest. Cloves are harvested at 1.5-2.0 cm. long, and consist of a long calyx that terminates in four spreading sepals, and four unopened petals that form a small central ball.

cocoa palm

On right side is the cocoa palm tree.

The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family) and the only species of the genus Cocos. The term coconut can refer to the whole coconut palm or the seed, or the fruit, which, botanically, is a drupe, not a nut. The spelling cocoanut is an archaic form of the word. The term is derived from the 16th-century Portuguese and Spanish word coco meaning "head" or "skull", from the three indentations on the coconut shell that resemble facial features.

Coconuts are known for their great versatility, as evidenced by many traditional uses, ranging from food to cosmetics. They form a regular part of the diets of many people in the tropics and subtropics. Coconuts are distinct from other fruits for their large quantity of water (also called "juice") and when immature, they are known as tender-nuts or jelly-nuts and may be harvested for their potable coconut water. When mature, they can be used as seed nuts or processed to give oil from the kernel, charcoal from the hard shell, and coir from the fibrous husk. The endosperm is initially in its nuclear phase suspended within the coconut water. As development continues, cellular layers of endosperm deposit along the walls of the coconut, becoming the edible coconut "flesh". When dried, the coconut flesh is called copra. The oil and milk derived from it are commonly used in cooking and frying, as well as in soaps and cosmetics. The husks and leaves can be used as material to make a variety of products for furnishing and decorating. The coconut also has cultural and religious significance in certain societies, particularly in India, where it is used in Hindu rituals.

coat of arms

Centered is The coat of arms of Tanzania.

The coat of arms of Tanzania comprises a warrior’s shield which bears a golden portion on the upper part followed underneath by the Flag of Tanzania. It was designed by Mr. Jeremiah Wisdom Kabati, at Bwiru Mwanza in 1961.

The golden portion represents minerals in the United Republic; the red portion underneath the flag symbolizes the rich fertile soil of Africa; and the wavy bands represent the land, sea, lakes and coastal lines of the United Republic.

In the golden part of the flag, there appears a burning torch signifying freedom (Uhuru), enlightenment and knowledge; a spear signifying defence of freedom and crossed axe and hoe being tools that the people of Tanzania use in developing the country.

The shield stands upon the representation of Mount Kilimanjaro. Elephant tusks are supported by a man and a woman, with a clove bush at the feet of the man and a cotton bush at the feet of the woman (whose head is covered with a golden scarf) indicating the theme of co-operation.

The United Republic motto below - Uhuru na Umoja - is written in Swahili and means "Freedom and Unity".

sisal

Around watermark field are the leaves of Sisal.

Sisal, with the botanical name Agave sisalana, is a species of Agave native to southern Mexico but widely cultivated and naturalized in many other countries. It yields a stiff fibre used in making various products. The term sisal may refer either to the plant's common name or the fibre, depending on the context. It is sometimes incorrectly referred to as "sisal hemp", because for centuries hemp was a major source for fibre, and others were named after it.

The sisal fibre is traditionally used for rope and twine, and has many other uses, including: paper, cloth, wall coverings, carpets, and dartboards.

Denominations in numerals are in top corners. In words at the bottom.

Revers:

10 Shillings 1974

sisal

Sisal drying on wooden supports.

Sisal production in Tanzania began in the late 19th century by the German East Africa Company. Sisal was continually produced during the German administration and the British administration and was the colony's largest export highly prized for use in cordage and carpets worldwide. At the time of independence in 1961, Tanzania was the largest exporter of Sisal in the world and the industry employed over 1 million farmers and factory workers.

Sisal production began to decline after independence due to the drop in world prices as synthetic nylon substitutes became more popular. The nationalization of the estates during Ujamaa and the mismanagement of the estates further dropped the production in the country. However, in recent years the government has injected funds to help revive the industry's glory.

Sisal is the oldest commercial cash crop still in survival in Tanzania. In 1893 visionary German Agronomist Dr. Richard Hindorf introduced the crop into the colony. The plant Agave sisalana was smuggled into Tanganyika from Yucatán, Mexico in the belly of a stuffed crocodile. Only 66 plants had survived the journey but it was commercially viable to start the industry. The country's warm and semi arid climate was perfect for the plant and production in the colony grew exponentially. The plants fibers were mainly used for the production of ropes for the German naval fleet and sacks to export other agriculture products from the colony. This success story began to grab the attention of the other European powers expanding their navies and the industry expanded to the neighboring colonies of modern-day Kenya, Mozambique and Angola.

Post World War I the British scored control of Tanganyika and continued to develop the industry. The colonial government continued to allocate more land for Sisal production which attracted Ex-British officers living in Kenya and many German settlers to continue farming along the country's northern border along the Arusha-Tanga road. At independence in 1961, Tanganyika was the world leader in Sisal production and over 200,000 tonnes of sisal was produced annual employing over 1 million workers in the industry. The crop was the country's highest foreign exchange earner and was referred to as Tanzania's "green gold".

Sisal production in the country peaked in 1964 with around 250,000 tonnes in production from regions from all over the country such as Tanga, Morogoro, Arusha, Mwanza and Shinyanga. In 1967 following the Arusha Declaration most of the sisal estates were nationalized by the government. This began the downfall of the sisal industry as bureaucracy, over-centralization and lack of experience caused the production to fall rapidly. Furthermore, with the increasing popularity of Synthetic Nylon fibers, drove the world price for sisal down resulting in the foreclosure of many sisal factories. By the end of Ujamaa and President Nyerere's rule, sisal production had fallen from 235,000 tonnes in 1964 to 32,000 in 1985, less than 15% of the country's peak.

With the changing economic landscape in Tanzania, the government of Tanzania passed the Sisal Industry Act, 1997; which allowed privatization of the government owned factories and established the Tanzania Sisal Board. Sisal production since has been stable, however there are no recent breakthroughs in production. Tanzania currently sits as the second largest producer of Sisal in the world after Brazil and the government plans to revive the industry to help facilitate the nations former glory.

The Sisal plant is used to produce a sisal line fiber. Historically this fiber has been used to produce threads and ropes for ships. Domestically the fibers are used to make various handicraft products such as carpets, bags, sacks and low density cords.

Denominations in numerals are in lower left and top right corners. In words at the bottom.

Comments:

On banknote are signatures of:

Cleopa David Msuya

Minister of Finance - Mr. Cleopa David Msuya.

Edwin I. Mtei

Governor of the Bank - Mr. Edwin I. Mtei.

In old German photo album, released in 1939, by the German journalist Ilse Steinhoff, I found a number of photographs relating to the assembly of sisal in East Africa (later Kenya and Tanzania). Photos are taken in 1938.

Richard HindorfHarvest of sisalChopped sisalsisal on the field train

machine KoronnaDrying sisaldrying sisaldrying sisal