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500 Rupees 2011, Seychelles

in Krause book Number: 44
Years of issue: 07.06.2011
Edition:
Signatures: Governor: Mr. Pierre Laporte
Serie: 2011 Serie
Specimen of: 2005
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 151 х 75
Printer: De la Rue currency,Loughton

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

500 Rupees 2011

Description

Watermark:

watermark

The Aldabra giant tortoise (Aldabrachelys gigantea) from Bank of Seychelles logo.

Aldabrachelys gigantea

The Aldabra giant tortoise (Aldabrachelys gigantea), from the islands of the Aldabra Atoll in the Seychelles, is one of the largest tortoises in the world. Historically, giant tortoises were on many of the western Indian Ocean islands, as well as Madagascar, and the fossil record indicates giant tortoises once occurred on every continent and many islands with the exception of Australia and Antarctica. Many of the Indian Ocean species were thought to be driven to extinction by over-exploitation by European sailors, and they were all seemingly extinct by 1840 with the exception of the Aldabran giant tortoise on the island atoll of Aldabra. Although some remnant individuals of A. g. hololissa and A. g. arnoldi may remain in captivity, in recent times, these have all been reduced as subspecies of A. g. gigantea.

The carapace is a brown or tan color with a high, domed shape. It has stocky, heavily scaled legs to support its heavy body. The neck of the Aldabra giant tortoise is very long, even for its great size, which helps the animal to exploit tree branches up to a meter from the ground as a food source. Similar in size to the famous Galápagos giant tortoise, its carapace averages 122 cm. (48 in.) in length with an average weight of 250 kg. (550 lb.). Females are generally smaller than males, with average specimens measuring 91 cm. (36 in.) in length and weighing 159 kg. (351 lb.). Medium-sized specimens in captivity were reported as 70 to 110 kg. (150 to 240 lb.) in body mass. Another study found body masses of up to 132 kg. (291 lb.) most commonplace.

Lodoicea maldivica

Centered is Lodoicea maldivica.

Lodoicea, commonly known as the sea coconut, coco de mer, or double coconut, is a monotypic genus in the palm family. The sole species, Lodoicea maldivica, is endemic to the islands of Praslin and Curieuse in the Seychelles. It formerly also was found on the small islets of St Pierre, Chauve-Souris and Ile Ronde (Round Island), all located near Praslin, but had become extinct there for a time until recently reintroduced. The name of the genus, Lodoicea, is derived from Lodoicus, the Latinised form of Louis, in honour of King Louis XV of France.

Chaetodon meyeri

A little left of the center is the Scrawled Butterflyfish.

The Scrawled Butterflyfish (Chaetodon meyeri) is a species of butterflyfish (family Chaetodontidae). It is found in the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean from East Africa to the Line Islands; north to the Ryukyu Islands; south to the Great Barrier Reef; including Micronesia and the Galapagos Islands.

Growing to a maximum length of 20 cm. (nearly 8 in.), its body is whitish or blue-white with curved to oblique black bands on the sides. A yellow-edged black bar runs through the eye, another is on the snout.

It is a close relative of the Mailed Butterflyfish (C. reticulatus) and the Ornate Butterflyfish (C. ornatissimus). Together they make up the subgenus called "Citharoedus", but as this name had already been used for a mollusc genus when it was given to the fish, it is not valid. They are probably quite close to the subgenus Corallochaetodon which contains for example the Melon Butterflyfish (C. trifasciatus). Like these, they might be separated in Megaprotodon if the genus Chaetodon is split up.

The Scrawled Butterflyfish is found at depths, between 2 and 25 meters, in coral-rich areas of clear seaward and lagoon reefs. They feed exclusively on coral polyps.

coat

In top left corner is The coat of arms of Seychelles.

The coat of arms of the Republic of Seychelles shows a shield, in which a giant tortoise is located on green grounds. On the ground there is a coco de mer palm tree. Behind it there is a blue sea with two islands and a sail ship to be seen. The shield is enthroned by a silver helmet, on which a white-tailed tropicbird is located above blue and white waves. The shield is supported by two white sailfish. Beneath the shield the motto of Seychelles is stated: "Finis Coronat Opus" (Latin for "The End Crowns the Work").

Istiophorus platypterus

On right side is hologram Sailfish with many denominations 500 inside.

A sailfish is a fish of the genus Istiophorus of billfish living in colder areas of all the seas of the earth. They are predominantly blue to gray in colour and have a characteristic erectile dorsal fin known as a sail, which often stretches the entire length of the back. Another notable characteristic is the elongated bill, resembling that of the swordfish and other marlins. They are therefore described as billfish in sport-fishing circles.

Sailfish grow quickly, reaching 1.2-1.5 m. (3 ft. 11 in. - 4 ft. 11 in.) in length in a single year, and feed on the surface or at middle depths on smaller pelagic forage fish and squid. Sailfish can supposedly reach very high swimming speeds of over 100 km/h (Lane 1941). Recent studies, however, do not support these claims and suggests that sailfish do not exceed swimming speeds of 36 km/h (22 mph.). Generally, sailfish do not grow to more than 3 m. (9.8 ft.) in length and rarely weigh over 90 kg. (200 lb.). Sailfish have been reported to use their bill for hitting schooling fish by tapping (short-range movement) or slashing (horizontal large range movement) at them.

Under Sailfish is the logo of Bank of Seychelles with Aldabra giant tortoise (please, see watermark description).

On left side is the map of Seychelles.

Denominations in numerals are in top right and and lower left corners. In words centered and in lower right corner.

Revers:

500 Rupees 2011

Centered is the man (fisherman) with stick, on which fish are hanging. Till now I cannot determine type of these fish, but, in my opinion, behind the fisherman is young Whitetip reef shark.

Triaenodon obesus

The whitetip reef shark (Triaenodon obesus) is a species of requiem shark, in the family Carcharhinidae, and the only member of its genus. A small shark usually not exceeding 1.6 m. (5.2 ft.) in length, this species is easily recognizable by its slender body and short but broad head, as well as tubular skin flaps beside the nostrils, oval eyes with vertical pupils, and white-tipped dorsal and caudal fins. One of the most common sharks found on Indo-Pacific coral reefs, the whitetip reef shark occurs as far east as South Africa and as far west as Central America. It is typically found on or near the bottom in clear water, at a depth of 8-40 m. (26–131 ft.).

During the day, whitetip reef sharks spend much of their time resting inside caves. Unlike other requiem sharks, which rely on ram ventilation and must constantly swim to breathe, this shark can pump water over its gills and lie still on the bottom. At night, whitetip reef sharks emerge to hunt bony fishes, crustaceans, and octopus in groups, their elongate bodies allowing them to force their way into crevices and holes to extract hidden prey. Individuals may stay within a particular area of the reef for months or years, frequently returning to the same shelter. This species is viviparous, in which the developing embryos are sustained by a placental connection to their mother. One of the few sharks in which mating has been observed in the wild, receptive female whitetip reef sharks are followed by prospective males, which attempt to grasp her pectoral fin and maneuver the two of them into positions suitable for copulation. Females give birth to one to six pups every other year, after a gestation period of 10–13 months.

Whitetip reef sharks are rarely aggressive towards humans, though they may investigate swimmers closely. However, spear fishers are at risk of being bitten by one attempting to steal their catch. This species is caught for food, though ciguatera poisoning resulting from its consumption has been reported. The IUCN has assessed the whitetip reef shark as Near Threatened, noting its numbers are dwindling due to increasing levels of unregulated fishing activity across its range. The slow reproductive rate and limited habitat preferences of this species renders its populations vulnerable to overfishing.

Otus insularis Otus insularis

On right side is the Seychelles Scops Owl (Otus insularis).

20-22 cm. Small, eared owl. Only one colour form: greyish-brown with rufous on underparts and around facial disc. Heavily barred, streaked and vermiculated. Unfeathered tarsi and toes. Eyes large, bright yellow to orange-red. Voice Loud, far-carrying, rasping, continuous waugh waugh and various tok tok notes. Hints Best located by call at dusk or dawn.

Otus insularis is endemic to Mahé in the Seychelles. The population size was previously estimated at 90-180 pairs (Rocamora 1997; Watson 2000b). However, modelling according to altitude and vegetation (thus excluding unsuitable habitat) produced an estimate of 125-142 territories, or 250-284 mature individuals, in a c.31 km2 range (Currie et al. 2004a). There are no data on the current population trend (Safford and Rocamora 2013; R. Fanchette in litt. 2005; D. Currie in litt. 2004). However, it is highly unlikely to be undergoing significant declines, since most available habitat is occupied and the area of habitat is probably stable (R. Bristol in litt. 2005). The population may have been more or less stable since the mid-1970s (Rocamora 1997; Watson 2000b). Eight of 12 sites where pairs were regularly seen in 1975-1976 were visited again in 1993 and pairs were detected at all eight sites (Watson 2000). However, some sites that used to be occupied on the borders of the Morne Seychellois National Park appear to have now been deserted, probably due to residential encroachment and / or human disturbance (Safford and Rocamora 2013). (www.iucnredlist.org)

bank bank

On left side, lowe, is the building of Bank of Seychelles.

The idea of constructing a new building for the future Central Bank was conceived as far back as May 1979. It arose out of the pressing need of the Monetary Authority for adequate accommodation, particularly for a more secure and spacious currency vault in the circumstance of a fast expanding currency issue. When the Central Bank took over from the Monetary Authority, it functioned in four separate locations in two buildings, the Liberty House with currency verification and destruction being carried out in the same building. Banking transactions were conducted over the counters, which the Bank shared with the Treasury, while currency stocks were held in one strong room on the ground floor and in two other rooms in the basement of Liberty House. The Research Department occupied the top floor of the three-storey block of the Pirates Building.

In 1984, the new Central Bank Building was finally completed and was officially opened by the then President of Seychelles, Mr. France Albert Rene, on June 4 of the same year. The official opening was attended by a number of foreign guests from various organisations as well as government officials and members of the Central Committee. The guest of honour for the occasion was Mr. Shridath Ramphal, the then Secretary General of the Commonwealth.

The building is one of the most impressive in Victoria and is an important land mark worthy of the unique position occupied by the Central Bank in the financial system in Seychelles. It is a three-storey structure, fully air-conditioned and covers a total area of some 3,500 square meters. It is located on Independence Avenue between the Independence House and the Pirates Arms Building. (www.cbs.sc)

And now more exactly about 4 mollusk on top.

Cypraea histrio

Near letter S in word Seychelles is Mauritia histrio.

Mauritia histrio, common name the harlequin cowry or the stage cowry, is a species of sea snail, a cowry, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Cypraeidae, the cowries.

These quite common large shells reach on average 40-55 millimeters (1.6-2.2 in.) of length, with a maximum size of 88 millimeters (3.5 in.) and a minimum adult size of 20 millimeters (0.79 in.). The basic color of the shell is pale brown, with many grey round spots on the dorsum surface and several dark brown marginal spots on the edges. The base is mainly white or pale brown, with a wide aperture and well-developed darker teeth, longer and stronger on the outer side. In the living mollusk the mantle is transparent, with short papillae. Mauritia histrio is quite similar to Cypraea arabica and Mauritia eglantina.

This species is distributed in the Indian Ocean and Western Pacific Ocean, along Aldabra, Chagos, East Africa, Kenya, Madagascar, the Mascarene Basin, Mauritius, Mozambique, Réunion, the Seychelles, Tanzania, North West Australia and Philippines.

Mauritia histrio lives in tropical shallow water. It is nocturnal, hiding during the day under rocks, large blocks or in deep crevices in coral reefs.

Cypraea argus

Left of Mauritia histrio is The eyed cowrie.

Arestorides argus, common name: the eyed cowrie, is a species of sea snail, a cowry, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Cypraeidae, the cowries.

This species and its subspecies are distributed in the seas off Aldabra, Chagos, the Comores, Kenya, Madagascar, the Mascarene Basin, Mauritius, Mozambique, Réunion, the Seychelles, Somalia and Tanzania.

Got its name because of the pattern in the form of many circles on the surface. In ancient Greek mythology there was a multi-eyed all-seeing giant, named Argus.

Gloriapallium pallium

Left of Arestorides argus is the shell of sea scallop Gloriapallium pallium.

Scallop is a common name that is primarily applied to any one of numerous species of saltwater clams or marine bivalve mollusks in the taxonomic family Pectinidae, the scallops. However, the common name "scallop" is also sometimes applied to species in other closely related families within the superfamily Pectinoidea, which also includes the thorny oysters.

Scallops are a cosmopolitan family of bivalves which are found in all of the world's oceans, although never in freshwater. They are one of very few groups of bivalves to be primarily "free-living", with many species capable of rapidly swimming short distances and even of migrating some distance across the ocean floor. A small minority of scallop species live cemented to rocky substrates as adults, while others attach themselves to stationary or rooted objects such as sea grass at some point in their lives by means of a filament they secrete called a byssal thread. The majority of species, however, live recumbent on sandy substrates, and when they sense the presence of a predator such as a starfish, they may attempt to escape by swimming swiftly but erratically through the water using jet propulsion created by repeatedly clapping their shells together. Scallops have a well-developed nervous system, and unlike most other bivalves all scallops have a ring of numerous simple eyes situated around the edge of their mantles.

Many species of scallop are highly prized as a food source, and some are farmed as aquaculture. The word "scallop" is also applied to the meat of these bivalves when it is sold as seafood. The brightly coloured, symmetrical, fan-shaped shells of scallops with their radiating and often fluted ornamentation are valued by shell collectors, and have been used since ancient times as motifs in art, architecture and design.

Cypraea tigris

Left of scallop (only half is visible) and on right side (also only half is visible) is the tiger cowrie.

Cypraea tigris, commonly known as the tiger cowrie, is a species of cowry, a large sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Cypraeidae, the cowries. The tiger cowry was one of the many species originally described by Linnaeus in his XVIII century work, Systema Naturae, and the species still bears its original name of Cypraea tigris. Its specific epithet tigris relates to its common name "tiger" (the shell however is spotted, not striped).

Under the shells is, again, the logo of the Bank of Seychelles.

Denominations in numerals are in lower left and top right corners, in words at the bottom.

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