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1000 Won 2007, South Korea

in Krause book Number: 54a
Years of issue: 22.01.2007
Edition:
Signatures: no signature
Serie: 2006 - 2007 Series
Specimen of: 22.01.2007
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 136 x 68
Printer: Korea Minting and Security Printing Corporation, Gajeong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

1000 Won 2007

Description

Watermark:

watermark

The portrait of Yi Hwang and denomination 1000.

Avers:

1000 Won 2007

Yi Hwang (1501-1570) is one of the two most prominent Korean Confucian scholars of the Joseon Dynasty, the other being his younger contemporary Yi I (Yulgok). A key figure of the Neo-Confucian literati, he established the Yeongnam School and set up the Dosan Seowon, a private Confucian academy. Yi Hwang is often referred to by his pen name Toegye ("Retreating Creek"). His courtesy name was Gyeongho.

Yi Hwang was the author of many books on Confucianism. He followed the dualistic Neo-Confucianism teachings of Chu Hsi, which views i (Chinese "li") and gi (Chinese "qi") as the forces of foundation of the universe. Yi Hwang placed emphasis on the i, the formative element, as the existential force that determines gi. This school of thought contrasted with the school that focused on the concrete element of gi, established by Yi Hwang's counterpart Yi I. Understanding the determinative pattern of i would be more essential in understanding the universe than recognizing the principles that govern individual manifestations of gi. This approach of placing importance on the role of i became the core of the Yeongnam School, where Yi Hwang's legacy was carried on by prominent figures such as Yu Seong-ryong and Kim Seong-il.

Yi Hwang was also talented in calligraphy and poetry, writing a collection of sijo, a three line poetic form popular with the literati of the Joseon period.

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On background is Lecture Hall Myeongryundang in Seonggyungwan, in Seoul, which was a foremost educational institution, a Confucian school.

Myeongnyundang (명륜당, 明倫堂): The name means "Hall of Enlightenment". It was originally built in 1398. The center room was used for ceremonies, lectures, rituals, tests, and other important events. The two smaller rooms were used for faculty research and private meetings.

Sungkyunkwan, was the foremost educational institution in Korea during the late Goryeo and Joseon Dynasties. It is located in its original location at the south end of the Humanities and Social Sciences Campus of Sungkyunkwan University in Seoul, South Korea. Today, it is managed by the local government. Twice a year in May and September, the ceremonial rite Seokjeon Daeje is performed in the Munmyo Shrine portion of the old campus to honor Confucius and the Confucian sages of China and Korea.

梅

Also, on background, are are the trees of Japanese plum or ume (梅).

Plum trees he had particularly loved during his lifetime. He was even supposed to have entrusted his son, as the last will, to water these trees.

Originally introduced from China, the Japanese plum (梅, ume; sometimes referred to as Japanese apricot) has played an important role in Japanese culture for many centuries. Its popularity was eventually surpassed by that of the cherry tree.

The plum is associated with the start of spring, because plum blossoms are some of the first blossoms to open during the year.

Denominations in numerals are in top right and lower left corners. Centered in words.

Revers:

1000 Won 2007

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The painting "Gyesangjeonggeodo" of Yi Hwang in Dosan Seowon by Jeong Seon, 1746.

Jeong Seon (Korean: 정선) (1676-1759) was a Korean landscape painter, also known by his pen name Kyomjae ("humble study"). His works include ink and oriental water paintings, such as Inwangjesaekdo (1751), Geumgang jeondo (1734), and Ingokjeongsa (1742), as well as numerous "true-view" landscape paintings on the subject of Korea and the history of its culture. He is counted among the most famous Korean painters. The landscape paintings that he produced reflect most of the geographical features of Korea. His style is realistic rather than abstract.

Jeong was born in the Jongno District of Seoul, in the Cheongun-dong neighborhood, in 1676. Unlike most painters of the time, he was not born into a wealthy family, but a poor yangban family. The eldest son of Jeong shi-ik (1638–1689), Jeong was born on the third day of the first lunar month in 1676 (equivalent to February 16 in the Gregorian calendar). He was a descendant of illustrious and gentry families. His family originally came from Kwangju. Jeong's cha was Wonbaek and his ho was Nangok. His best known pen name is Kyomjae, which he chose himself.

The poverty he experienced in his youth made him pursue his career as a painter. He was proficient at Zhou-I and astronomy, which he learned while serving as a Geomgyosu (兼敎授; professor extraordinaire). He worked at the Bureau of Painting creating landscapes for patrons and clients. In March 1716, at age 41, he started his tenure at a Geomgyosu of Gwansanggam (觀象監, Office for Observance of Natural Phenomena).

He was discovered by an aristocratic neighbour who recommended him to the court. He soon gained an official position. Jeong is said to have painted daily, with a prolific output until old age. He died on the 24th day of the third lunar month in 1759 (equivalent to April 20 in the Gregorian calendar).

Jeong was one of the most famous Korean painters. He inspired other Korean artists to follow suit, leaving a lasting impact on Korean art of the Joseon era. He was the most eminent painter in the late Joseon Dynasty (1700-1850). Jeong explored the scenic beauty of the capital city of Hanyang (Seoul), the Han River, the East Sea (Sea of Japan), and the Diamond Mountain. He is the first painter of true-view Korean landscapes. Differing from earlier techniques and traditional Chinese styles, he created a new style of painting depicting the virtues of Korea.

By the end of the decade, Jeong had developed his own, more realistic style, likely under the influence of the Sirhak movement. This set him apart from the then-prevailing Chinese literati tradition of idealised and abstract landscape art. His grandson, Jeong Hwang (䜁ό, 1737–?), displayed the true-view landscape style in addition to genre painting.

Jeong was one of the few known Korean painters to depart from traditional Chinese styles. It is reported that he frequently left his studio and painted the world around him, as he could see it. His paintings are classified as Southern School, but he developed his own style by realistically portraying natural scenes such as mountains and streams with bold strokes of his brush.

A major characteristic of his work is intermixed dark and light areas, created by layers of ink wash and lines. His mountains are punctuated by forests, which in turn are lightened by mists and waterfalls. Vegetation is made from dots, a technique that bears the influence of Chinese painter Mi Fei (1052-1107). Jeong's style would influence generations of Korean artists, and become one of the iconic images of Korean nationalism.

Denominations in numerals are in top left and lower right corners.

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