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1000 Kronor 1990, Sweden

in Krause book Number: 60a
Years of issue: 1990
Edition:
Signatures: Per Borg, Bengt Dennis
Serie: 1985 - 1989 Issue
Specimen of: 22.11.1989
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 160 х 82
Printer: Tumba Bruk (Crane and Co.), Tumba, Sweden

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

1000 Kronor 1990

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Gustav I (1496-1560), King of Sweden 1523–1560. Founded the Swedish hereditary monarchy and united the loosely-ordered Sweden of the XVI century into a centrally-administered state. The portrait is an intaglio print after an oil painting by Cornelius Arentz, from the 1620s.

Avers:

1000 Kronor 1990

Gustav Vasa Gustav Vasa

On banknote is the portrait of Gustav I Vasa by Cornelius Arendtz, made between 1610 and 1640.

Cornelius Arendtz (Arendtson, also Cornelis), born around 1590 - died around 1655, was a Dutch portrait painter, worked in Sweden.

Arendtz was the son of the painter Arendt Lamprechtsm who moved to Sweden from Emden, Netherlands.

He was active in the years 1610 to 1640, and portrayed among others Gustav II Adolf and Queen Kristina. He often painted portraits, typical for his time, but with more realistic faces.

Gustav I, born Gustav Eriksson of the Vasa noble family and later known as Gustav Vasa (12 May 1496 – 29 September 1560), was King of Sweden from 1523 until his 1560 death, previously self-recognized Protector of the Realm (Rikshövitsman) from 1521, during the ongoing Swedish War of Liberation against King Christian II of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Initially of low standing, Gustav rose to lead the rebel movement following the Stockholm Bloodbath, in which his father perished. Gustav's election as King on 6 June 1523 and his triumphant entry into Stockholm eleven days later meant the end of Medieval Sweden's elective monarchy and the Kalmar Union, and the birth of a hereditary monarchy under the House of Vasa and its successors, including the current House of Bernadotte.

As King, Gustav proved an enigmatic administrator with a ruthless streak not inferior to his predecessor's, brutally suppressing subsequent uprisings (three in Dalarna – which had once been the first region to support his claim to the throne - one in Västergötland, and one in Småland). He worked to raise taxes, end Feudalism and bring about a Swedish Reformation, replacing the prerogatives of local landowners, noblemen and clergy with centrally appointed governors and bishops. His 37-year rule, which was the longest of a mature Swedish king to that date (subsequently passed by Gustav V and Carl XVI Gustav) saw a complete break with not only the Danish supremacy but also the Roman Catholic Church, whose assets were nationalized, with the Lutheran Church of Sweden established under his personal control. He became the first truly autocratic native Swedish sovereign and was a skilled propagandist and bureaucrat, with his main opponent, Christian's, infamous mark as the "tyrant king" and his largely fictitious adventures during the liberation struggle still widespread to date. Due to a vibrant dynastic succession, his three sons, Erik, Johan and Karl IX, all held the kingship at different points.

Gustav I has subsequently been labelled the founder of modern Sweden, and the "father of the nation". Gustav liked to compare himself to Moses, whom he believed to have also liberated his people and established a sovereign state. As a person, Gustav was known for ruthless methods and a bad temper, but also a fondness for music and had a certain sly wit and ability to outmaneuver and annihilate his opponents. He founded one of the now oldest orchestras of the world, the Kungliga Hovkapellet (Royal Court Orchestra). Royal housekeeping accounts from 1526 mention twelve musicians including wind players and a timpanist but no string players. Today the Kungliga Hovkapellet is the orchestra of the Royal Swedish Opera.

Vädersolstavlan Vädersolstavlan

On banknote, on background, is the detail from Vädersolstavlan, an oil painting of an atmospheric optical phenomenon, that was visible over Stockholm on 20 April 1535. The phenomenon, probably a halo display, is symbolized by the rings. The painting, which hangs in Stockholm Cathedral, is the oldest image of Stockholm existing in Sweden and the oldest image of halo display on paintings.

A sun dog (or sundog) or mock sun, meteorological name parhelion, (plural parhelia), is an atmospheric phenomenon that consists of a bright spot to the left and/or right of the Sun. A pair of sun dogs often flank the Sun.

Sun dogs are a member of a large family of halos, created by light interacting with ice crystals in the atmosphere. Sun dogs typically appear as a pair of subtly colored patches of light around 22° to the left and right of the Sun and at the same altitude above the horizon as the Sun. They can be seen anywhere in the world during any season, but they are not always obvious or bright. Sun dogs are best seen and are most conspicuous when the Sun is close to the horizon.

Vädersolstavlan (Swedish for "The Sun Dog Painting") is an oil-on-panel painting, depicting a halo display, an atmospheric optical phenomenon, observed over Stockholm on April 20, 1535. It is named after the sun dogs (Swedish: Vädersol, "Weather sun") appearing on the upper right part of the painting. While chiefly noted for being the oldest depiction of Stockholm in colour, it is arguably also the oldest Swedish landscape painting and the oldest depiction of sun dogs.

The original painting, which was produced shortly after the event and traditionally attributed to Urban målare ("Urban [the] Painter" - Urban Larrson), is lost, and virtually nothing is known about it. However, a copy from 1636 by Jacob Heinrich Elbfas, held in Storkyrkan in Stockholm, is believed to be an accurate copy and was until recently erroneously thought to be the restored original. It was previously covered by layers of brownish varnish, and the image was hardly discernible until carefully restored and thoroughly documented in 1998-1999.

The painting was produced during an important time in Swedish history. The establishment of modern Sweden coincided with the introduction of Protestantism and the break-up with Denmark and the Kalmar Union. The painting was commissioned by the Swedish reformer Olaus Petri, and the resulting controversies between him and King Gustav Vasa and the historical context remained a well-kept secret for centuries. During the XX century the painting became an icon for the history of Stockholm, and it is now frequently displayed whenever the history of the city is commemorated.

Vädersolstavlan

The painting is divided into an upper part depicting the halo phenomenon viewed vertically and a lower part depicting the city as it must have appeared viewed from Södermalm, in the late Middle Ages. The medieval urban conglomeration, today part of the old town Gamla stan, is rendered using a bird's-eye view. The stone and brick buildings are densely packed below the church and castle, which are rendered in a descriptive perspective (i.e., their size relates to their social status, rather than their actual dimensions). Scattered wooden structures appear on the surrounding rural ridges, today part of central Stockholm. Though the phenomenon is said to have occurred in the morning, the city is depicted in the evening with shadows facing east.

The wooden panel measures 163 by 110 centimeters (64 by 43 inches) and is composed of five vertical deals (softwood planks) reinforced by two horizontal dovetail battens. The battens, together with the rough scrub planed back, have effectively reduced warping to a minimum and the artwork is well preserved, with only insignificant fissures and attacks by insects. A dendrochronological examination of the panel by doctor Peter Klein at the Institute für Holzbiologie in Hamburg determined that it is made of pine deals (Pinus silvestris), the annual rings of which date from various periods ranging from the 1480s to around 1618. The painting can therefore date no further back than around 1620. This is consistent with the year 1636 given on the frame and mentioned in the parish accounts.

The dye, covering a semi-transparent red-brownish bottom layer, is emulsion paint containing linseed oil. The painting was apparently painted detail by detail as no under-painting or preparatory sketches have been discovered, except for marks at the centres of the biggest circles indicating that compasses were used. As a result of this, the horizon tilts to the right; an x-ray analysis has shown that the painter tried to compensate for this tilt by altering various elements in the painting, including mountains added along the horizon and the gently leaning spires of the church and the castle. A narrow unpainted border has been left around the image.

Storkyrkan

Storkyrkan or The Great Church, officially named Sankt Nikolai kyrka (Church of St. Nicholas) and informally called Stockholms domkyrka (Stockholm Cathedral), is the oldest church in Gamla stan, the old town in central Stockholm, Sweden. It is an important example of Swedish Brick Gothic. Situated next to the Royal Palace, it forms the western end of Slottsbacken, the major approach to the Royal Palace, while the streets Storkyrkobrinken, Högvaktsterrassen, and Trångsund passes north and west of it respectively. South of the church is the Stockholm Stock Exchange Building facing Stortorget and containing the Swedish Academy, Nobel Library, and Nobel Museum.

Storkyrkan was first mentioned in a written source dated 1279 and according to tradition was originally built by Birger Jarl, the founder of the city itself. For nearly four hundred years it was the only parish church in the city, the other churches of comparable antiquity originally being built to serve the spiritual needs of religious communities (e.g., Riddarholm Church). It became a Lutheran Protestant church in 1527. The parish church since the Middle Ages of the Nikolai parish, covering the whole island on which the Old Town stands, it has also been the cathedral of Stockholm since the Diocese of Stockholm was created out of the Archdiocese of Uppsala and the Diocese of Strängnäs in 1942. Because of its convenient size and its proximity to the earlier royal castle and the present royal palace it has frequently been the site of major events in Swedish history, such as coronations, royal wedding and royal funerals. The last Swedish king to be crowned here was Oscar II in 1873. Crown Princess Victoria, oldest daughter of King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Silvia, was married to Daniel Westling on 19 June 2010 at the Storkyrkan, the same date on which her parents were also married in Storkyrkan in 1976.

micro-text

On right side of banknote, vertically, is the quotation from Gustav I, taken from an archbishop's circular from 1525, in which he informs his brethren, that the King has decided to translate the Bible into the Swedish language.

Micro-text that can be read with the aid of a magnifying glass, written in Latin and meaning: "Let them have the Holy Scripture in their own language" ("Scripturam in propria habeant lingua").

Denominations in numerals are in lower right and top left corners, in words on top.

Revers:

1000 Kronor 1990

Gustav Vasa Gustav Vasa

Graphic interpretation from the 1555 work "Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus" ("A Description of the Northern Peoples") by Olaus Magnus (1490–1557), scientific and writer, whose work is considered to be one of the most important sources for our knowledge of Sweden's geography and cultural history in the XVI century. The image shows the harvest being gathered and threshed under a shining sun.

Olaus Magnus (October 1490 – 1 August 1557) was a Swedish writer and Catholic ecclesiastic.

He is best remembered as the author of the famous Historia de Gentibus Septentrionalibus (History of the Northern Peoples), printed in Rome 1555, a patriotic work of folklore and history which long remained for the rest of Europe the authority on Swedish matters. This text on dark winters, violent currents and beasts of the sea amazed the rest of Europe. It was translated into Italian (1565), German (1567), English (1658) and Dutch (1665), and not until 1909 into Swedish. Abridgments of the work appeared also at Antwerp (1558 and 1562), Paris (1561), Amsterdam (1586), Frankfort (1618) and Leiden (1652). It is still today a valuable repertory of much curious information in regard to Scandinavian customs and folklore. A translation of the Latin title page goes: "Olaus Magnus Gothus', the Upsala Archbishops', history of the Nordic people's different manners and camps, also about the wonderful differences in customs, holy practices, superstitions, bodily exercises, government and food keeping; further on war, buildings and wonderful aids; further on metals and different kinds of animals, that live in these neighbourhoods (...)".

Denominations in numerals are in lower right and top left corners, in words at bottom.

Comments:

Engraver of Gustav Vasa portrait: Agnes Miski.

Reverse engraver: Alan Dow.

The corners diagonally at the top left and bottom right have yellow-green fluorescence (engraving). The city closest to the left and right of Gustav has orange fluorescence (offset). The sun on the back shows yellow fluorescent half-crowd (offset).

1000 Kronor

The modified 1000 Kronor banknotes on pallet. The photo of Sveriges Riksbank.