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200 Kronor 2015, Sweden

in Krause book Number: 72
Years of issue: 01.10.2015 (printed in 2014)
Edition:
Signatures: Johan Gernandt, Stefan Ingves
Serie: Kulturresan (2015-2016 Issue)
Specimen of: 04.2012
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 140 х 66
Printer: Tumba Bruk (Crane and Co.), Tumba, Sweden

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

200 Kronor 2015

Description

Watermark:

200 Kronor 2015

Ingmar Bergman. Denomination 200.

Avers:

200 Kronor 2015

200 Kronor 2015

The engraving on banknote is made after this photo of Ingmar Bergman. The photo made by French photographer Frederick-Edwin Bertin, in a conference room of the Royal Dramatic Theater (Kungliga Dramatiska Teatern), in Stockholm, at 4 of April 2001.

Frederick-Edwin Bertin was born just south of Paris. His interest in image and art was already raised as he was a child, when he with his father made countless visits to museums in Europe and North America. At Seventeen years old (in 1977), he suffered from a severe eye disease that could lead to blindness. But his vision returned and after three months of darkness, he discovered the joy of everything he saw and decided to start a career as a photographer.

 Between 1998 and 2001 he lived in Stockholm, mainly to portray Ingmar Bergman and all his colleagues.

"- During these years the Drama became my second home. The dream was, of course, to photograph Bergman himself, but I never saw him. I was advised to always be well prepared, the moment could come at any time.

Then it came! On April 4, 2001, Bergman set up for photography. It all happened in a conference room of the Drama Theater and took no more than 20 minutes.

- I had mounted my Hasselblad camera on a steady stand and Bergman sat next to the window that gave the perfect light. He regretted that he did not speak French, but said he would like to read Molière. He told me a bit about his youth and about his time as a theater manager, and suddenly that little smile appeared on the banknote picture.

"When I learned, that the image would adorn the new Swedish 200-kronor, it came as a clean shock!"

On the banknote, most of Ingmar Bergman's hand is lost behind the green rectangle in the lower right corner, with the result that the thumb is left alone at Bergman's mouth. Therefore, the thumb was removed.

Ernst Ingmar Bergman (14 July 1918 – 30 July 2007) was a Swedish director, writer, and producer, who worked in film, television, theater and radio. He is recognized as one of the most accomplished and influential auteurs of all time, and is most famous for films such as The Seventh Seal (1957), Wild Strawberries (1957), Persona (1966), Cries and Whispers (1972) and Fanny and Alexander (1982). Also well-regarded are works such as Winter Light (1963), The Silence (1963), and Scenes from a Marriage (1973).

Bergman directed over sixty films and documentaries for cinematic release and for television, most of which he also wrote. He also directed over 170 plays. From 1953 he forged a powerful creative partnership with his full-time cinematographer Sven Nykvist. Among his company of actors were Harriet and Bibi Andersson, Liv Ullmann, Gunnar Björnstrand, Erland Josephson, Ingrid Thulin and Max von Sydow. Most of his films were set in Sweden, and numerous films from Through a Glass Darkly (1961) onward were filmed on the island of Fårö. His work often dealt with death, illness, faith, betrayal, bleakness and insanity.

Philip French referred to Bergman as "one of the greatest artists of the XX century. He found in literature and the performing arts a way of both recreating and questioning the human condition." Mick LaSalle argued, "Like Virginia Woolf and James Joyce in literature, Ingmar Bergman strove to capture and illuminate the mystery, ecstasy and fullness of life, by concentrating on individual consciousness and essential moments. His achievement is unsurpassed."

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Bergman’s film career began in 1941 with his work rewriting scripts, but his first major accomplishment was in 1944 when he wrote the screenplay for Torment/Frenzy (Hets), a film directed by Alf Sjöberg. Along with writing the screenplay, he was also appointed assistant director of the film. In his second autobiographical book, Images: My Life in Film, Bergman describes the filming of the exteriors as his actual film directorial debut. The film sparked debate on Swedish formal education. When Henning Håkanson (the principal of the high school Bergman had attended) wrote a letter following the film's release, Bergman, according to scholar Frank Gado, disparaged in a response what he viewed as Håkanson's implication that students "who did not fit some arbitrary prescription of worthiness deserved the system's cruel neglect". Bergman also stated in the letter that he "hated school as a principle, as a system and as an institution. And as such I have definitely not wanted to criticize my own school, but all schools." The international success of this film led to Bergman’s first opportunity to direct a year later. During the next ten years, he wrote and directed more than a dozen films including The Devil’s Wanton/Prison (Fängelse) in 1949 as well as The Naked Night/Sawdust and Tinsel (Gycklarnas afton) and Summer with Monika (Sommaren med Monika), both 1953.

Bergman first achieved worldwide success with Smiles of a Summer Night (Sommarnattens leende) (1955), which won for "Best poetic humour" and was nominated for the Palme d’Or at Cannes the following year. This was followed by The Seventh Seal (Det sjunde inseglet) and Wild Strawberries (Smultronstället), released in Sweden ten months apart in 1957. The Seventh Seal won a special jury prize and was nominated for the Palme d'Or at Cannes and Wild Strawberries won numerous awards for Bergman and its star, Victor Sjöström. Bergman continued to be productive for the next two decades. From the early 1960s, he spent much of his life on the Swedish island of Fårö, where he made several films.

In the early 1960s he directed three films that explored the theme of faith and doubt in God, Through a Glass Darkly (Såsom i en Spegel, 1961), Winter Light (Nattvardsgästerna, 1962), and The Silence (Tystnaden, 1963). Critics created the notion that the common themes in these three films made them a trilogy or cinematic triptych. Bergman initially responded that he did not plan these three films as a trilogy and that he could not see any common motifs in them, but he later seemed to have adopted the notion, with some equivocation. In 1964 he made a parody of Fellini with All These Women (För att inte tala om alla dessa kvinnor).

In 1966, he directed Persona, a film that he himself considered one of his most important works. While the highly experimental film won few awards, many consider it his masterpiece. Other notable films of the period include The Virgin Spring (Jungfrukällan, 1960), Hour of the Wolf (Vargtimmen, 1968), Shame (Skammen, 1968) and A Passion/The Passion of Anna (En Passion, 1969). Bergman also produced extensively for Swedish television at this time. Two works of note were Scenes from a Marriage (Scener ur ett äktenskap, 1973) and The Magic Flute (Trollflöjten, 1975).

After his arrest in 1976 for tax evasion, Bergman swore he would never again make films in Sweden. He shut down his film studio on the island of Fårö and went into self-imposed exile. He briefly considered the possibility of working in America and his next film, The Serpent’s Egg (1977) was a German-U.S. production and his second English-language film (the first being 1971’s The Touch). This was followed a year later with a British-Norwegian co-production of Autumn Sonata (Höstsonaten, 1978) starring Ingrid Bergman. The one other film he directed was From the Life of the Marionettes (Aus dem Leben der Marionetten, 1980) a British-German co-production.

In 1982, he temporarily returned to his homeland to direct Fanny and Alexander (Fanny och Alexander). Bergman stated that the film would be his last, and that afterwards he would focus on directing theatre. After that he wrote several film scripts and directed a number of television specials. As with previous work for TV, some of these productions were later released in theatres. The last such work was Saraband (2003), a sequel to Scenes from a Marriage and directed by Bergman when he was 84 years old.

200 Kronor 2015

Right of Bergman's photo is the photo by Louis Huch (1896-1961), a still photographer attached to "Svensk Filmindustri". From the making of Ingmar Bergman's film "The Seventh Seal", which opened in 1957. Shows Ingmar Bergman in conversation with Bengt Ekerot, in the role of Death.

200 Kronor 2015

Micro-text left of Bergman:

"Den tillhör er, världens dyrbaraste stol, var rädda om den. Den är mycket ömtålig, den går lätt sönder, metallen som levat i milliarder år, femtioniotusen meter under jorden har tröttnat på mänskorna, den kan falla sönder i stoft och damm precis som kejsarinnan om ni inte är rädda om den. Oscar i Fanny och Alexander 1983."

In English:

"The most precious chair in the world belongs to you. Take care of it, for it's very fragile. It might easily fall to pieces. This metal, which has existed for billions of years, fifty-nine thousand meters under the earth, has tired of people. It could turn into powder and dust just like the empress if you don't take care of it. Oscar in "Fanny and Alexander", 1983."

200 Kronor 2015

Micro-text above denomination 200, in lower right corner - quotation by Ingmar Bergman.

"Jag vet nämligen att vi med filmens hjälp kan tränga in i hittills obesedda världar, verkligheter utanför verkligheten."

In English:

"I know, of course, that by using film we can bring in other previously unknown worlds, realities beyond reality."

Denominations in numerals are in top left and lower right corners. In words at the top.

Revers:

200 Kronor 2015

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The main image on banknote - Rauks at Langhammars, Fårö (on north-west shore of the island), where Ingmar Bergman used to live.

200 Kronor 2015

The Langhammars peninsula and the Langhammars nature reserve on north-western Fårö are rocky beaches with Ice age stone monoliths known as rauks. Langhammars was the setting for Ingmar Bergman's film "Through a Glass Darkly".

200 Kronor 2015 200 Kronor 2015 200 Kronor 2015

To the north of Langhamars is the Langhammarshammaren peninsula - a nature reserve with raukar, rocky beaches and dunes, which are partially covered with pine trees.

Medieval yards:

One kilometer south of Langhamars is one of the most well preserved medieval agricultural regions of Gotland. The site contains at least eight fundnets of ancient houses, meadows and stone fences (stensträngar), which served as walls of natural stone, about 0.8 m high - 0.9 m for the separation of lushov and fields from roads. This area was opened in 1978, excavations were carried out from 1997 to 2009. The foundations of houses on the site date back to the XII to XV centuries. The nineteenth-century rumor testified that this place may have been the former village of Langhammar.

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Raukar (Swedish, singular of the Rauk, sometimes also the rocket and plural rockets translated) are up to 10 meters high limestone columns, which can be found on Gotland, but also on Fårö, Lilla Karlsö and on the neighboring island of Öland (Byrums raukar near Byrum) are.

At the beginning of the Cambrian Period, which began more than 543 million years ago, the Baltic Sea and South Scandinavia were flooded from the south. By the end of the Silurian period a flat sea formed. At that time, Baltica, the continent on which Gotland was also situated, was still in the southern hemisphere and pushed slowly northwards. The changing climate of the different widths can still be demonstrated today in the sediments. Thus a large coral reef formed around 490 million years ago in the area of ​​Gotland and Öland, which was now on the equator. In the flatter coastal regions, the reef was littered with thousands of years. This is formed mainly by large accumulations of sponges and corals. The bizarre forms emerged after the last ice age by erosion and erosion of the various hard lime and marlstone rocks in the coastal area. Another factor is the chemical weathering caused by the natural occurrence of carbonic acid in the rainwater. Because of the post-ice age and the uplifting of the islands to the present, some Raukar (for example, at Lickershamn) are now even coastal. In addition, there are many fossils in the rock formations as well as in the surrounding area, which are still very well preserved. They are the remains of a once large tropical sea.

The mostly very bizarre "stone sculptures" were compared to "statues, horses and all sorts of spirits and devils" by Carl von Linné. The best-known, because also tourist-developed, Rauk is the Hoburggubben ("Hoburg-Greis") located at the southwestern tip of the island Gotland in Hoburgen.

200 Kronor 2015

At the bottom is European ivy (Hedéra hélix) as provincial flower of lan Gotland.

Hedera helix (common ivy, English ivy, European ivy, or just ivy) is a species of flowering plant in the family Araliaceae, native to most of Europe and western Asia. A rampant, clinging evergreen vine, it is a familiar sight in gardens, waste spaces, on house walls, tree trunks and in wild areas across its native habitat. It is labeled as an invasive species in a number of areas where it has been introduced.

Hedera is the generic term for ivy. The specific epithet helix derives from Ancient Greek "twist, turn" (see: Helix).

Hedera helix is an evergreen climbing plant, growing to 20-30 m. (66-98 ft.) high where suitable surfaces (trees, cliffs, walls) are available, and also growing as groundcover where no vertical surfaces occur. It climbs by means of aerial rootlets with matted pads which cling strongly to the substrate. The ability to climb on surfaces varies with the plants variety and other factors: Hedera helix prefers non-reflective, darker and rough surfaces with near-neutral pH. It generally thrives in a wide range of soil pH with 6.5 being ideal, prefers moist, shady locations and avoids exposure to direct sunlight, the latter promoting drying out in winter.

It ranges from Ireland northeast to southern Scandinavia, south to Portugal, and east to Ukraine and Iran and northern Turkey.

100 Kronor 2015

Map of Sweden, with marked island Gotland on it, where used to live and work Ingmar Bergman. Here he got an inspiration for many of his movies.

Denominations in numerals are in top right and lower left corners. In words at the bottom.

Comments:

I got this banknote in Visby, island Gotland, at 10 May 2017.

Banknote paper: Manufactured of cotton fibres that are not fluorescent, which is to say they do not emit any light under ultraviolet light (other types of paper may emit a bluish glow).

Banknote numbers: The letters indicate the year in which the banknote was printed. A = 2013, B = 2014 etc. The two first digits indicate where on the printing sheet the banknote was printed. The final seven digits are a serial number.

Safety features:

Vertical green security ribbon with three windows. The windows feature images that move and alternate motif between KR and a royal crown when you tilt the banknote. The placement of the security strip may vary by up to 2 cm.

Colour-shifting image linked to the person portrayed on the banknote, in this case a clapperboard. The banknote's denomination, 200, is also shown in the image. The image and the denomination gradually change colour between gold and green when you tilt the banknote.

Intaglio print, which makes the paper feel like a banknote and gives it a noticeable raised surface. Run your thumb over it or scrape lightly with a fingernail. Intaglio printing has been used for the portrait, denominations and the text SVERIGESRIKSBANK.

Watermark with the banknote's denomination and portrait that are visible when you hold the banknote to the light. The denomination appears significantly lighter than the rest of the paper.

Security thread embedded in the banknote paper. Visible as a dark line when you hold the banknote up to the light.

A pattern that, together with a matching pattern on the reverse, forms the denomination when you hold the banknote to the light.

UV image (three crowns) that fluoresces (glows) yellow and blue under ultraviolet light. On reverse same feature has denomination 200 in square, but fluoresces (glows) green.

UV fibres spread across the entire banknote that fluoresce (glow) yellow and blue under ultraviolet light.

In spring 2011, the Riksbank announced a competition for the design of Sweden’s new banknotes. The competition was open to artists, graphic artists, designers and architects and was concluded in April 2012.

After a jury had assessed all entries, the General Council of the Riksbank decided to appoint Göran Österlund's entry Kulturresan (Cultural Journey) as winner. It thus formed the artistic base for the new banknotes.

The competition jury consisted of four members of the General Council of the Riksbank and two artistic experts. The General Council members were Peter Egardt (Chairman), Anders Karlsson, Sonia Karlsson and Allan Widman. The artistic experts were Jordi Arkö and Karin Granqvist.

The portraits on the banknotes were engraved by Gunnar Nehls. The composition of the banknotes was created by Crane AB's design team under the leadership of Karin Mörck Hamilton. The composition is based on the artistic starting point developed by Göran Österlund.

The main substances in Swedish banknotes are cotton (cellulose), synthetic polymers, such as polyester, water and titanium dioxide. The notes are printed using banknote printing inks on banknote paper. The paper is made from cotton fibres that contain various security features, such as security bands, an embedded security thread and invisible UV fluorescent fibres.

The printing inks for offset printing, intaglio, UV fluorescent printing and screen printing contain pigments (organic and inorganic), resin, mineral oils, vegetable oils, waxes (natural and synthetic) and drying agents (cobalt acetate).

The embedded security thread contains iron and aluminium, among other substances.

The banknotes also contain very small amounts of other additives that make the paper stronger. These include, for instance, CarboxyMethylCellulose, epichlorohydrin resin and N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone.

The banknotes have special details in intaglio print which makes it easier for visually-impaired people to tell them apart.

N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone is harmful in concentrated form but the banknotes contain very small quantities. According to investigations made by the Riksbank and the banknote supplier, there are no health risks in handling banknotes.

The submission proposed providing the banknotes with GPS coordinates and so-called QR Codes. However, the jury deems that this proposal is neither practical nor appropriate from a security standpoint, and thus assumes that it will not be realized. (www.riksbank.se)