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20 Kronor 2015, Sweden

in Krause book Number: 69
Years of issue: 01.10.2015 (printed in 2014)
Edition:
Signatures: Johan Gernandt, Stefan Ingves
Serie: Kulturresan (2015-2016 Issue)
Specimen of: 04.2012
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 120 х 66
Printer: Tumba Bruk (Crane and Co.), Tumba, Sweden

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

20 Kronor 2015

Description

Watermark:

20 Kronor 2015

Astrid Lindgren. Denomination 20.

Avers:

20 Kronor 2015

20 Kronor 2015

The engraving on banknote is made after this photo of Astrid Anna Emilia Lindgren. The photo made by Jacob Forsell from stock photography agency "Scanpix Scandinavia", in 1987.

Astrid Anna Emilia Lindgren (born Ericsson; 14 November 1907 – 28 January 2002) was a Swedish writer of fiction and screenplays. She is best known for children's book series featuring Pippi Longstocking, Emil i Lönneberga, Karlsson-on-the-Roof, and the Six Bullerby Children (Children of Noisy Village in the US), as well as the children's fantasy novels Mio min Mio, Ronia the Robber's Daughter, and The Brothers Lionheart.

As of January 2017, she is the world's 18th most translated author and the fourth most-translated children's writer after Enid Blyton, H. C. Andersen and the Brothers Grimm. Lindgren has sold roughly 144 million books worldwide.

Best-known books:

Pippi Longstocking series (Pippi Långstrump)

Karlsson-on-the-Roof series (Karlsson på taket)

Emil of Lönneberga series (Emil i Lönneberga)

Bill Bergson series (Mästerdetektiven Blomkvist)

Madicken series

Ronia the Robber's Daughter (Ronja rövardotter)

Seacrow Island (Vi på Saltkråkan)

The Six Bullerby Children / The Children of Noisy Village series (Barnen i Bullerbyn)

Mio, My Son / Mio, My Mio (Mio, min Mio)

The Brothers Lionheart (Bröderna Lejonhjärta)

20 Kronor 2015

Micro-text in Astrid Lindgren's hairs.

Taken from Astrid Lindgren, Skolbiblioteket 1958:3 (March 1958):

"JAGVILLSKRIVAFÖRENLÄSEKRETSSOMKANSKAPAMIRAKEL

BARNSKAPARMIRAKELNÄRDELÄSERDÄRFÖRBEHÖVERBARNBÖCKER".

In English:

"I want to write for readers who can perform miracles. Only children perform miracles when they read. That's why children need books."

20 Kronor 2015

On right side is Pippi Longstocking (Swedish: Pippi Långstrump).

The main illustrator of books about Peppi is the Danish artist Ingrid Wang Nyman. It is her illustrations that are most famous all over the world.

It is the main character in an eponymous series of children's books by the Swedish author Astrid Lindgren. Pippi was named by Lindgren's daughter Karin, then nine years old like Pippi, who asked her mother for a get-well story when she was off school.

Pippi is red-haired, freckled, unconventional and superhumanly strong – able to lift her horse one-handed. She is playful and unpredictable. She often makes fun of unreasonable adults, especially if they are pompous and condescending. Her anger comes out in extreme cases, such as when a man ill-treats his horse. Pippi, like Peter Pan, does not want to grow up. She is the daughter of a buccaneer captain and has adventure stories to tell about that too. Her four best friends are her horse and monkey, and the neighbours' children, Tommy and Annika.

After being rejected by Bonnier Publishers in 1944, Lindgren's first manuscript was accepted by Rabén and Sjögren. The first three Pippi chapter books were published in 1945-1948, another six in 1969-1975, and two final stories in 1979 and 2000. They have been translated into 70 languages and made into several films and television series.

On banknote depicted 2 opened books, with text in each of them:

20 Kronor 2015

Micro-text in lower book. Taken from the first book about Pippi, issued in 1945:"OM NI SKULLE TA OCH GÅ HEM NU, SA PIPPI, SÅ ATT NI KAN KOMMA TILLBAKA IGEN I MORGON. FÖR ATT OM NI INTE GÅR HEM SÅ KAN NI JU INTE KOMMA TILLBAKA. OCH DET VORE JU SYND. PIPPI".

In English:

"Suppose you go home now, said Pippi, so that you can come back tomorrow. Because if you don't go home you can't come back, and that would be a shame. Pippi"

20 Kronor 2015

Micro-text on second page of the same book. Taken from "Pippi in the South Seas", first edition 1948: "Fina lilla krumelur, jag vill aldrig bliva stur. Pippi".

In English:

"Little squiggle, you are clever, I do not want to grew up ever. Pippi."

20 Kronor 2015

Micro-text on top book. Taken from "Om läshunger", essay by Astrid Lindgren in the magazine "Vi husmödrar" ("We are housewives"), issued in October 1956: "En barndom utan böcker, det vore ingen barndom. Det vore att vara utestängd från det förtrollade landet, där man kan hämta den sällsammaste av all glädje. Astrid".

In English:

"A childhood without books – that would be no childhood. That would be like being shut out from the enchanted place where you can go and find the rarest kind of joy. Astrid"

20 Kronor 2015

Micro-text under the image of Pippi, near denomination: "SVERIGESRIKSBANK SVERIGESRIKSBANK SVERIGESRIKSBANK".

Denominations in numerals are in top left and lower right corners. In words at the top.

Revers:

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On background, above, is typical Småland forest road with stone wall.

Right of center is the map of Sweden with the province of Småland marked, where Astrid Lindgren grew up on a farm called Näs, near Vimmerby.

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Småland is a historical province (landskap) in southern Sweden. Småland borders Blekinge, Scania (Swedish: Skåne), Halland, Västergötland, Östergötland and the island Öland in the Baltic Sea. The name Småland literally means Small Lands. The Latinized form Smolandia has been used in other languages. The highest point in Småland is Tomtabacken, at 377 meters (1,237 ft.).

The traditional provinces of Sweden serve no administrative or political purposes, but are historical and cultural entities. The province is divided into the three administrative counties: Jönköping County, Kalmar County and Kronoberg County, which roughly cover the entire Småland province. Smaller areas of Småland, however, are situated in Halland County and Östergötland County.

The geography is dominated by a forested high plain where the soil is mixed with sand and small boulders, making it barren in all except the coastal areas, and unsuited for agriculture except in certain locations, notably the Kalmar Plains. The province is rich in lakes and bogs. The coast consists of an archipelago of islands and bays in the north and cultivated flatlands in the south. In total, cultivated land covers 14%, meadows 7% and forest 50%.

Largest towns are Jönköping in the north-west, Växjö in the south, and Kalmar on the east coast near Öland Island.

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The area was probably populated in the Stone Age from the south, by people moving along the coast up to Kalmar. Småland was populated by Stone Age peoples by at least 6000 BC, since the Alby People are known to have crossed the ice bridge across the Kalmar Strait at that time.

The name Småland ("small lands") comes from the fact that it was a combination of several independent lands, Kinda (today a part of Östergötland), Tveta, Vista, Vedbo, Tjust, Sevede, Aspeland, Handbörd, Möre, Värend, Finnveden and Njudung. Every small land had its own law in the Viking age and early middle age and could declare themselves neutral in wars Sweden was involved in, at least if the King had no army present at the parliamentary debate. Around 1350, in the reign of king Magnus Eriksson, the first national law code was introduced in Sweden, and the historic provinces lost much of their old autonomy.

The city of Kalmar is one of the oldest cities of Sweden, and in the medieval age it was the southernmost and the third largest city in Sweden, when it was a center for export of iron, which, in many cases, was handled by German merchants. At the time, Scania and Blekinge were not parts of Sweden.

Småland was the center of several peasant rebellions. The one closest to being successful was Dackefejden led by Nils Dacke in 1542–1543. When officials of king Gustav Vasa were assaulted and murdered, the king sent small expeditions to pacify the area, but all failed. Dacke was in reality the ruler of large parts of Småland during the winter, though heavily troubled by a blockade of supplies, before finally being defeated by larger forces attacking from both Västergötland and Östergötland. Dacke held a famous battle defence at the (now ruined) Kronoberg Castle, and was shot while trying to escape to then Danish-ruled Blekinge.

A geographical part of Småland called Kingdom of Crystal is known for its many glassworks and can be historically traced back to the XVIII century.

In the 19th century, Småland was characterized by poverty, and had a substantial emigration to North America, which additionally hampered its development. The majority of emigrants ended up in Minnesota, with a geography resembling Sweden, combining arable land with forest and lakes. Many came to Texas, recruited by Swante M. Swenson, a wealthy Texas magnate and friend of Sam Houston.

The well known furniture company IKEA was founded in the Småland town of Älmhult.

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Compared to much of Sweden, Småland has a higher level of religious intensity and church participation.

In terms of Lutheran ecclesiastical boundaries, most of the province encompasses the diocese of Växjö. Parts of northern Småland are in the diocese of Linköping.

Småland is also known for its free churches, although the free church congregations are concentrated in Jönköping County. Most of Kalmar County and Kronoberg County have few or no free church congregations.

Politically Småland is the strongest province for Kristdemokraterna (the Swedish Christian Democratic Party), and both of the last two leaders of the party - Göran Hägglund and Alf Svensson live in Jönköping Municipality in northern Småland.

The Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus, sw. Carl von Linné (1707-1778), often called the father of taxonomy or "The flower-king", was born in Älmhult in Småland. He gave the twinflower its Latin name based on his own (Latin: Linnaea borealis), because of his particular fondness of it. The flower has become Småland's provincial flower.

Another notable person from Älmhult is Ingvar Kamprad, the founder of the global company IKEA. The name "Småland" is used as the name of the children's play areas at some IKEA stores.

Småland is home to the Linnaeus University, located in Växjö and Kalmar, and the Jönköping University.

The Swedish emigration to North America during the 19th century, is best depicted in a suite of novels by author Vilhelm Moberg, which is also the basis for the musical Kristina from Duvemåla created by Benny Andersson and Björn Ulvaeus of ABBA fame.

In her writing, children's book author Astrid Lindgren often portrayed scenes from her own childhood, growing up on a farm in Småland.

20 Kronor 2015

At the bottom are The twin flowers (Linnaea borealis) - the provincial flower of Småland.

Linnaea is a plant genus which has often been classified in the family Caprifoliaceae (the Honeysuckle family) but may be more accurately considered to belong to its own family, Linnaeaceae. The genus includes a single, generally boreal to subarctic woodland subshrub species, Linnaea borealis, commonly known as twinflower (sometimes written twin flower).

This plant was a favorite of Carl Linnaeus, founder of the modern system of binomial nomenclature, for whom it was named.

Linnaea borealis has a circumpolar distribution in moist subarctic, boreal, or cool temperate forests, extending further south at higher elevations in various mountains, in Europe south to the Alps, in Asia south to northern Japan, and in North America south to northern California and to Arizona and New Mexico in the west, and to West Virginia (and formerly Tennessee) in the Appalachian Mountains in the east.

20 Kronor 2015

Micro-text under the map of Sweden and on short sides: "SVERIGESRIKSBANK SVERIGESRIKSBANK SVERIGESRIKSBANK".

Denominations in numerals are in top right and lower left corners. In words at the bottom.

Comments:

I got this banknote in Visby, island Gotland, at 10 May 2017.

Banknote paper: Manufactured of cotton fibres that are not fluorescent, which is to say they do not emit any light under ultraviolet light (other types of paper may emit a bluish glow).

Banknote numbers: The letters indicate the year in which the banknote was printed. A = 2013, B = 2014 etc. The two first digits indicate where on the printing sheet the banknote was printed. The final seven digits are a serial number.

Safety features:

Colour-shifting image linked to the person portrayed on the banknote, in this case a book. The banknote's denomination, 20, is also shown in the image. The image and the denomination gradually change colour between gold and green when you tilt the banknote.

Intaglio print, which makes the paper feel like a banknote and gives it a noticeable raised surface. Run your thumb over it or scrape lightly with a fingernail. Intaglio printing has been used for the portrait, denominations and the text SVERIGESRIKSBANK.

Watermark with the banknote's denomination and portrait that are visible when you hold the banknote to the light. The denomination appears significantly lighter than the rest of the paper.

Security thread embedded in the banknote paper. Visible as a dark line when you hold the banknote up to the light.

A pattern that, together with a matching pattern on the reverse, forms the denomination when you hold the banknote to the light.

UV image (three crowns) that fluoresces (glows) yellow and blue under ultraviolet light. On reverse same feature has denomination 20 in square, but fluoresces (glows) green.

UV fibres spread across the entire banknote that fluoresce (glow) yellow and blue under ultraviolet light.

In spring 2011, the Riksbank announced a competition for the design of Sweden’s new banknotes. The competition was open to artists, graphic artists, designers and architects and was concluded in April 2012.

After a jury had assessed all entries, the General Council of the Riksbank decided to appoint Göran Österlund's entry Kulturresan (Cultural Journey) as winner. It thus formed the artistic base for the new banknotes.

The competition jury consisted of four members of the General Council of the Riksbank and two artistic experts. The General Council members were Peter Egardt (Chairman), Anders Karlsson, Sonia Karlsson and Allan Widman. The artistic experts were Jordi Arkö and Karin Granqvist.

The portraits on the banknotes were engraved by Gunnar Nehls. The composition of the banknotes was created by Crane AB's design team under the leadership of Karin Mörck Hamilton. The composition is based on the artistic starting point developed by Göran Österlund.

The main substances in Swedish banknotes are cotton (cellulose), synthetic polymers, such as polyester, water and titanium dioxide. The notes are printed using banknote printing inks on banknote paper. The paper is made from cotton fibres that contain various security features, such as security bands, an embedded security thread and invisible UV fluorescent fibres.

The printing inks for offset printing, intaglio, UV fluorescent printing and screen printing contain pigments (organic and inorganic), resin, mineral oils, vegetable oils, waxes (natural and synthetic) and drying agents (cobalt acetate).

The embedded security thread contains iron and aluminium, among other substances.

The banknotes also contain very small amounts of other additives that make the paper stronger. These include, for instance, CarboxyMethylCellulose, epichlorohydrin resin and N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone.

The banknotes have special details in intaglio print which makes it easier for visually-impaired people to tell them apart.

N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone is harmful in concentrated form but the banknotes contain very small quantities. According to investigations made by the Riksbank and the banknote supplier, there are no health risks in handling banknotes.

The submission proposed providing the banknotes with GPS coordinates and so-called QR Codes. However, the jury deems that this proposal is neither practical nor appropriate from a security standpoint, and thus assumes that it will not be realized. (www.riksbank.se)