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1 Pound Sterling 1940, Kingdom of Great Britain

in Banknotes Book Number: BE47b
Years of issue: 03.1940
Edition: --
Signatures: Chief Cashier: Mr. Kenneth Oswald Peppiatt (in office from 1934 till 1949)
Serie: England
Specimen of: 03.1940
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 150,7 х 84,4
Printer: TDLR (Thomas de la Rue & Company), London

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

1 Pound Sterling 1940

Description

Watermark:

watermarkBritannia. On sides of banknote are wavy lines.

Avers:

1 Pound Sterling 1940

On left side is Britannia.

Britannia is an ancient term for Roman Britain and also a female personification of the island. The name is Latin, and derives from the Greek form Prettanike or Brettaniai, which originally designated a collection of islands with individual names, including Albion or Great Britain; however, by the 1st century BC Britannia came to be used for Great Britain specifically. In AD 43 the Roman Empire began its conquest of the island, establishing a province they called Britannia, which came to encompass the parts of the island south of Caledonia (roughly Scotland). The native Celtic inhabitants of the province are known as the Britons. In the II century, Roman Britannia came to be personified as a goddess, armed with a trident and shield and wearing a Corinthian helmet.

The Latin name Britannia long survived the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, and yielded the name for the island in most European and various other languages, including the English Britain and the modern Welsh Prydain. After centuries of declining use, the Latin form was revived during the English Renaissance as a rhetorical evocation of a British national identity. Especially following the Acts of Union in 1707, which joined the Kingdoms of England and Scotland, the personification of the martial Britannia was used as an emblem of British imperial power and unity.

Denomination is on right side.

Revers:

1 Pound Sterling 1940

Building of the Bank of England, the view at the building before 1925 (reconstruction).

Bank of England Bank of EnglandThe history of the Bank is naturally one of interest, but also of continuing relevance to the Bank today. Events and circumstances over the past three hundred or so years have shaped and influenced the role and responsibilities of the Bank. They have moulded the culture and traditions, as well as the expertise, of the Bank which are relevant to its reputation and effectiveness as a central bank in the early years of the XXI century. At the same time, much of the history of the Bank runs parallel to the economic and financial history, and often the political history, of the United Kingdom more generally.

For the first forty years of its life the Bank rented premises to carry on its business, firstly, in the hall of the Mercers' Company in Cheapside and moving in January 1695 to the larger premises of the Grocers' Company in Princes Street. In 1734 it moved to purpose-built premises in Threadneedle Street which were approximately 80 feet wide (25m.) and 300 feet (90m.) long. Over the next one hundred years the site was gradually extended until by 1828 the current outline was achieved.

The Bank has been served by a distinguished line of architects:

​1732-1734 George Sampson's Bank of England ​

Scant details of George Sampson have survived. Even his dates are not known for certain. He appears to have held the post of Clerk of Works at the Tower of London and Somerset House before becoming Surveyor to the Bank. His only major work is the 1734 Bank, arguably the first purpose-built bank in the British Isles. He is thought to have died in 1764.

1765-1788 Sir Robert Taylor's Bank of England.

A sculptor who turned to architecture later in life, he extended the Threadneedle street façade of the Bank firstly eastwards and, after the demolition of the church of St Christopher-le-Stocks in 1781, westwards. In order to avoid piercing the outer walls with openings for light he introduced top-lighting to his new banking halls which were dominated by his centrally-placed Rotunda.

1788-1833 Sir John Soane's Bank of England.

Sir John Soane was one of England's greatest architects. His appointment in October 1788 as "Architect and Surveyor" to the Bank was the most important of his distinguished career. The Bank was his main pre-occupation for the ensuing 45 years until his retirement in 1833 when he described it as "...a situation which has long been the pride and boast of my life". He extended the Bank's site and eventually enclosed it in 1828 with a windowless wall.'

The structure of "Soane's Bank of England" remained more or less untouched until it was demolished and a new building erected by the architect Herbert Baker between 1925-1939.

1833-1855 Professor C R Cockerell.

​1855-1883 P C Hardwick.

​1883-1899 Sir Arthur Blomfield.

​1899-1919 A C Blomfield.

1925-1939 Sir Herbert Baker's Bank of EnglandBetween 1925 and 1939 he demolished what had become known as 'The Old Bank' or "Soane's Bank" (then regarded as one of London's architectural gems) and built a new headquarters for the Bank on the same 3 ½ acre Theadneedle Street site. The "Old Bank" had been in the main no more than three storeys high; Baker's new building rose seven storeys above ground and dropped three below to accommodate the extra staff required to tackle the Bank's rapidly increasing volume of work and responsibilities. (Bank of England)

The Bank Nun.

On November 2nd 1811, Philip Whitehead, "a man of genteel appearance" who had been employed in the Cashier’s Office at the Bank of England, was brought to the dock of the Old Bailey, charged with forgery. Found guilty, he was sentenced to death and was duly hanged in early 1812.

News of his crime and execution was, however, kept from his devoted sister, Sarah Whitehead, who was removed by Philip’s friends to a house in Wine Office Court, off Fleet Street. But one day, Sarah turned up at the Bank of England to enquire of her brother’s whereabouts, and an unthinking clerk promptly blurted out the story of Philip’s crime and ignominious death.

The shock of the discovery turned the poor woman’s mind and thereafter she took to turning up at the Bank everyday asking after her brother in the belief that he still worked there. She became known as the “Bank Nun” on account of her peculiar attire that consisted of a long black dress and a black crepe veil worn over her face and head. The city merchants took pity on her and never let her pass “without extending their assistance,” whilst the Directors and clerks of the Bank of England saw to it that she was frequently provided with “sums of money in compliment of her misfortune.”

But she became convinced that the Bank governors were keeping an immense fortune from her and this led to her frequently hurling insults at them during business hours. On one occasion Baron Rothschild was going about his business at the Stock Exchange when she suddenly appeared and called him a “villain and a robber” telling him that he had defrauded her of her fortune and demanding the £2,000 he owed her. He responded by taking half a crown from his waistcoat pocket, handing it to her and telling her as he did so “There, then, take that and don’t bother me now; I’ll give you the other half tomorrow.” Accepting the money, she thanked him and went away.

By 1818 the Bank governors had grown tired of her daily disturbances and so gave her a sum of money on condition she agreed never to return to the bank again. In life she kept that contract, but in death her wraith has broken it many times. More than one late night wanderer, wending their weary way home along Threadneedle Street has been surprised by her ghostly figure appearing before them and, with downcast eyes enquiring sadly, though politely, “have you seen my brother?” (Haunted historic buildings)

Two coat of arms - Saint George Killing the Dragon.

akant

On background are the acanthus leaves.

The acanthus is one of the most common plant forms to make foliage ornament and decoration.

The decoration is made by analogy with the herbaceous plant of acanthus acanthus family, native to the Mediterranean. The shape of its leaves, with a few sharp edges, resembling a bear's paw, was the basis for the drawing.

Acanthus often represents life and immortality.

Comments:

Emergency War Issue.

Metallic security thread.

Designer: W.M. Keesey and others.

peppiattChief Cashier to the Bank of London, Kenneth Oswald Peppiatt, signing the Bank Returns Statement.

Kenneth Oswald Peppiatt was the 20th Chief Cashier holding the post between 1934 and 1945. Born in 1893, educated at Bancroft’s School, he joined the bank in 1911. He fought in the 1st World War, was wounded twice and won the Military Cross for his efforts. He was knighted in 1941, became Executive Director in 1949 and retired from the Bank of England in 1957, after which he became a non-executive director at "Coutts Bank".

Kenneth Oswald Peppiatt died on 12 May 1983, aged 90. (www.adcastle.co.uk)