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1 Kwacha 1976, Malawi

in Krause book Number: 14a
Years of issue: 31.01.1976
Edition: 14 850 627
Signatures: Governor: Mr. John Zenus Ungapake Tembo (in office 1971 - 1984)
Serie: 1976 - 1984 Issue
Specimen of: 31.01.1976
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 134 x 76
Printer: Bradbury, Wilkinson & Company Limited, New Malden

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

1 Kwacha 1976

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Black rooster - the logo of Hastings Kamuzu Banda's "Malawi Congress Party" (MCP).

The name kwacha derives from the chewa and Bemba word for "dawn", while tambala translates as "rooster" in Nyanja. The tambala was so named because a rooster announces "dawn".

Avers:

1 Kwacha 1976

Hastings Kamuzu Banda

The engraving on banknote is based, presumably, on this photo. The photo made in July 1960, in London, United Kingdom.

In July 1960, he joined Dr. Banda, Orton Chirwa, Aleke Banda and other prominent Africans at the Nyasaland Constitutional Conference in London. It was here that British Government decided that Nyasaland (Malawi) should become self-governing by early 1963, and that Banda, should become Prime Minister. In 1961, Chiume was elected MP for Rumphi and was made Minister of Education.

Hastings Kamuzu Banda (c. March or April 1898 - 25 November 1997) was the leader of Malawi from 1961 to 1994 (for the first three years of his rule, until it achieved independence in 1964, Malawi was the British protectorate of Nyasaland). After receiving much of his education overseas, Banda returned to his home country (then British Nyasaland) to speak against colonialism and advocate for independence. In 1963, he was formally appointed prime minister of Nyasaland and led the country to independence as Malawi a year later. Two years later, he proclaimed Malawi a republic with himself as president. He consolidated power and later declared Malawi a one-party state under the Malawi Congress Party (MCP). In 1970, the MCP made him the party's President for Life. In 1971, he became President for Life of Malawi itself.

As a leader of the pro-Western bloc in Africa, he received support from the West during the Cold War. He generally supported women's rights, improved the country's infrastructure, and maintained a good educational system relative to other African countries, but he also presided over one of the most repressive regimes in Africa. His government regularly tortured and murdered political opponents. Human rights groups estimate that at least 6,000 people were killed, tortured and jailed without trial. According to at least one estimate, as many as 18,000 people were killed during his rule. He also faced scorn for maintaining full diplomatic relations with apartheid-era South Africa.

By 1993, he was facing international pressure and widespread protest. A referendum ended his one-party state, and a special assembly ended his life-term presidency and stripped him of most of his powers. Banda ran for president in the democratic elections which followed and was defeated.

He died in South Africa in 1997. His legacy remains controversial, with some hailing him as a national and African hero, while others denounce him as a tyrant and as a corrupt leader.

Nyasa

Centered is the view of Lake Nyasa with the lake boat (Dugout) with three fishermen on it. On the background is the mountain range and getting up, at dawn, sun.

Lake Malawi, also known as Lake Nyasa in Tanzania and Lago Niassa in Mozambique, is an African Great Lake and the southernmost lake in the East African Rift system, located between Malawi, Mozambique and Tanzania. It is the ninth largest lake in the world and the third largest and second deepest lake in Africa. It is home to more species of fish than any other lake, including about 1000 species of cichlids. The Mozambique portion of the lake was officially declared a reserve by the Government of Mozambique on June 10, 2011, and in Malawi a portion of the lake is included in the Lake Malawi National Park. Lake Malawi is a meromictic lake; permanent stratification and the toxic-anoxic boundary are maintained by moderately small chemical and thermal gradients.

The Portuguese trader Candido José da Costa Cardoso was the first European to visit the lake in 1846. David Livingstone reached the lake in 1859, and named it "Lake Nyasa". "Nyasa" in language of Yao people means "Lake".

boats

A dugout or dugout canoe is a boat made from a hollowed tree trunk. Other names for this type of boat are logboat and monoxylon. Monoxylon (μονόξυλον) (pl: monoxyla) is Greek - mono- (single) + ξύλον xylon (tree) - and is mostly used in classic Greek texts. In Germany they are called einbaum ("one tree" in English). Some, but not all, pirogues are also constructed in this manner.

The well-watered tropical rainforest and woodland regions of sub-Saharan Africa provide both the waterways and the trees for dugout canoes, which are commonplace from the Limpopo River basin in the south through East and Central Africa and across to West Africa. African Teak is the timber favoured for their construction, though this comprises a number of different species, and is in short supply in some areas. Dugouts are paddled across deep lakes and rivers or punted through channels in swamps (makoro) or in shallow areas, and are used for transport, fishing and hunting, including, in the past, the very dangerous hunting of hippopotamus. Dugouts are called pirogues in Francophone areas of Africa.

palm tree

Centered, above, is the branch of African oil palm.

The Elaeis guineensis Jacq. (1763) is native to tropical Africa (Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Congo, Ivory Coast, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Nigeria, Central African Republic, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zaire), where it grows at the margins of the pluvial forests and along the courses of water.

The name of the genus comes from the Greek “élaion”= oil, the name of the species refers to one of its countries of origin.

The most used common names are: “palma da olio” (Italian); “African oil palm”, “macaw fat”, “oil palm”, “palm kernel oil” (English); “palmier à huile”, “palmier à huile d’Afrique” (French); Afrikanische Ölpalme”, “Ölpalme” (German); “corojo de Guinea”, “palmera de aceite” (Spanish); “caiaué”, “dendezeiro”, “palmeira dendém”, “palmeira andim” (Portuguese); “mchikichi”, “miwesi”, “mjen- ga” (Swahili).

It shows a solitary trunk tall up to 20 metres and with a diameter of about 40 cm, with the foliar bases persisting for long time on the younger part. The crown, thick and impressive, is formed by pinnate leaves, curved on the terminal part, four metres long, which persist for long time; the pinnulae, of a glossy green colour, are long up to about 70 cm and are inserted with various angles on the rachis; the petiole, thickly fibrous on the base, is provided with short triangular thorns on the margins.

Monoecious plant, it develops separate, but on the same plant, male and female inflorescences between the leaves, compact and long up to about 30 cm. The fructification is abundant and continuous all over the year; the fruits are ovoid, long about 4 cm, usually of a blackish colour, and orange-red at the base. It reproduces by seed, which germinates in 6-8 months, if opportunely previously treated and and with bottom heat.

The cultivation of this plant for the oil production, has had during the very last years a remarkable increase, such as to overcome any other vegetable source. This is due to the copious and uninterrupted fructification and the high percentage of oil present in the pulp (up to the 65%) and in the endosperm (up to the 50%). The refined oil palm and its by-products are widely utilized not only in the alimentary field and in the making of products for the personal hygiene (soaps, cleansing agents, etc.), but also in countless and varied industrial products. Finally, it is already utilized, and a further increase is expected, as fuel (biodiesel).

The plant has also a moderate utilization as ornament, limited to the tropical and warm-humid subtropical climate, as they do not bear temperatures even if just close to 0 °C. (Dr. Giuseppe MAZZA)

Denominations in numerals are in all corners. In words centered, above.

Revers:

1 Kwacha 1976

tea harvesting tea harvesting

Tea harvesting, presumably, in Mulanje tea district.

The Mulanje Massif, also known as Mount Mulanje, is a large monadnock in southern Malawi only 65 km. east of Blantyre, rising sharply from the surrounding plains of Chiradzulu, and the tea-growing Mulanje district. It measures approximately 13x16 miles (22x26 kilometers) and has a maximum elevation of 3,002 m. at its highest point in Malawi - Sapitwa Peak.

Much of the Massif consists of rolling grassland at elevations of 1800-2200 m, intersected by deep forested ravines. It has many individual peaks reaching heights of over 2500 m, including Chambe Peak, the West Face of which is the longest rock climb in Africa.

tea harvesting

"The Republic of Malawi is the second largest producer of tea in Africa, which is almost wholly exported.In the country itself, tea is the second most popular tobacco product.

The first seedlings of a tea plant were brought to this former British colony, called Piasaland, in 1878 by Scottish missionary Protestants from the Royal Botanic Garden in Edinburgh. Later, the Assamian hybrid from Ceylon was used on the plantations. In 1904 the first harvest for export was received. By the end of XX century. The size of the plantations exceeded 20,000 ha, 88% of which are occupied by large private plantations. About 20,000 people are employed in plantations and primary processing of tea leaves.

Most of the plantations are located at an altitude of 600 m. above sea level. High temperatures and uneven precipitation with periods of drought are not very conducive to tea production. The dry years were 1990, 1991 and especially 1992, which caused great damage to plantings. In 1994, however, a good sheet was produced, which yielded 44 thousand tons of products. It is sold mainly through London as a "filler" in the preparation of tea blends. "

"The beginning of tea growing in this country goes back to 1878, when the English colonizers brought here the seeds that gave rise to the first plantations.

The rapid development of tea growing came only in the mid-50's. Today, this country is listed as one of the largest producers of tea on the continent. The most fertile land is located in the south of Malawi. It is here, in the highlands of the Shire, and there are tea plantations, which occupy about 6% of the country's agricultural lands. A severe drought or heavy rains often lead to the destruction of the crop.

The average annual volume of tea produced reaches 50 thousand tons. Basically it is tea produced by the CTC method. It is used as a filler for making certain tea blends.

When brewing, Malawi tea gives a dark red infusion. The taste and flavor of the drink are mediocre. Tea is best used for breakfast and drinking with milk."

Denominations in numerals are in lower left and top right corners. In words in lower right corner.

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