Top
header Notes Collection

10000000 Lira 1999, Turkey

in Krause book Number: 214
Years of issue: 05.11.1999
Edition:
Signatures: Governor: Gazi Ercel (10.04.1996 - 01.03.2001), Deputy Governor: Süreyya Serdengeçti
Serie: Seventh Serie E7
Specimen of: 05.11.1999
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 162 x 76
Printer: Central Bank of Turkey, Banknote Printing Facility, Ankara

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

10000000 Lira 1999

Description

Watermark:

10000000 Lirasi 1999Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.

Avers:

10000000 Lira 1999

Mustafa Kemal AtaturkThe engraving on banknote is made after this photo of Mustafa Atatürk.

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 - 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer, reformist statesman, and the first President of Turkey. He is credited with being the founder of the Republic of Turkey. His surname, Atatürk (meaning "Father of the Turks"), was granted to him in 1934 and forbidden to any other person by the Turkish parliament.

Atatürk was a military officer during World War I. Following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I, he led the Turkish National Movement in the Turkish War of Independence. Having established a provisional government in Ankara, he defeated the forces sent by the Allies. His military campaigns led to victory in the Turkish War of Independence. Atatürk then embarked upon a program of political, economic, and cultural reforms, seeking to transform the former Ottoman Empire into a modern and secular nation-state. Under his leadership, thousands of new schools were built, primary education was made free and compulsory, and women were given equal civil and political rights, while the burden of taxation on peasants was reduced. The principles of Atatürk's reforms, upon which modern Turkey was established, are referred to as Kemalism.

10000000 Lirasi 1999On background is Turkish flag.

The flag of Turkey (Turkish: Türk bayrağı) is a red flag featuring a white star and crescent. The flag is often called al bayrak (the red flag), and is referred to as al sancak (the red banner) in the Turkish national anthem.

The current design of the Turkish flag is directly derived from the late Ottoman flag, which had been adopted in the late 18th century and acquired its final form in 1844.

The measures, geometric proportions, and exact tone of red of the flag of Turkey were legally standardized with the Turkish Flag Law on May 29, 1936.

The star and crescent design appears on Ottoman flags beginning in the late 18th or early 19th century. The introduction of the white star and crescent on red as the flag of the Ottoman Empire dates to the Tanzimat reforms of 1844.

In accounting for the crescent and star symbol, Ottomans[who?] sometimes (1890) referred to a legendary dream of the eponymous founder of the Ottoman house, Osman I, in which he is reported to have seen a moon rising from the breast of a qadi whose daughter he sought to marry. "When full, it descended into his own breast. Then from his loins there sprang a tree, which as it grew came to cover the whole world with the shadow of its green and beautiful branches." Beneath it Osman saw the world spread out before him, surmounted by the crescent. The real legend: Turks fought a legendary bloody battle. It was so bloody that a shallow lake of blood was formed. Survivors of the battle saw that moon and stars shined over the blood. Red on the flag is the blood of matryrs.

Fundamentals of the Turkish flag during the Republic period of Turkey were laid down by Turkish Flag Law No. 2994 on May 29, 1936. Turkish Flag Regulation No. 2/7175 dated July 28, 1937, and Supplementary Regulation No. 11604/2 dated July 29, 1939, were enacted to describe how the flag law would be implemented. The Turkish Flag Law No. 2893 dated September 22, 1983, and Published in the Official Gazette on September 24, 1983, was promulgated six months after its publication. According to Article 9 of Law No. 2893, a statute including the fundamentals of the implementation was also published.

Denomination in numerals are in top left and bottom right corners, in words - in top right corner.

Revers:

10000000 Lira 1999

10000000 Lirasi 1999On banknote - surviving fragment of the Piri Reis map (1513), showing the Central and South American coast.

The Piri Reis map is currently located in the Library of the Topkapı Palace in Istanbul, Turkey, but is not usually on display to the public.

The Piri Reis map is a world map compiled in 1513 from military intelligence by the Ottoman admiral and cartographer Piri Reis. Approximately one third of the map survives; it shows the western coasts of Europe and North Africa and the coast of Brazil with reasonable accuracy. Various Atlantic islands, including the Azores and Canary Islands, are depicted, as is the mythical island of Antillia and possibly Japan.

The historical importance of the map lies in its demonstration of the extent of global exploration of the New World by approximately 1510, and in its claim to have used Christopher Columbus' maps, otherwise lost, as a source. It used ten Arab sources, four Indian maps sourced from the Portuguese, and one of Columbus'. More recently, it has been the focus of pseudohistoric claims for the pre-modern exploration of the Antarctic coast.

The map is the extant western third of a world map drawn on gazelle skin parchment, with dimensions reported as 90 cm. × 63 cm., 86 cm. × 60 cm., 90 cm. × 65 cm., 85 cm. × 60 cm., 87 cm. × 63 cm., and 86 cm. × 62 cm. These discrepancies are largely due to the damaged corner. The surviving portion primarily details the western coast of Africa and the eastern coast of South America. The map was signed by Piri Reis, an Ottoman-Turkish admiral, geographer and cartographer, and dated to the month of Muharram in the Islamic year 919 AH, equivalent to 1513 AD. It was presented to Ottoman Sultan Selim I in 1517. In the map's legend, Piri inscribed that the map was based on about twenty charts and mappae mundi. According to Piri, these maps included eight Ptolemaic maps, an Arabic map of India, four newly drawn Portuguese maps from Sindh, Pakistan and a map by Christopher Columbus of the western lands. From Inscription 6 on the map:

From eight Jaferyas of that kind and one Arabic map of Hind [India], and from four newly drawn Portuguese maps which show the countries of Sind [now in modern day Pakistan], Hind and Çin [China] geometrically drawn, and also from a map drawn by Qulūnbū [Columbus] in the western region, I have extracted it. By reducing all these maps to one scale this final form was arrived at, so that this map of these lands is regarded by seamen as accurate and as reliable as the accuracy and reliability of the Seven Seas on the aforesaid maps."

There is some scholarly debate over whether the 20 charts and mappae mundi in Piri's inscriptions includes the eight Ptolemaic maps, the four Portuguese maps, the Arabic map and the Columbus map. From one perspective, the number of charts and mappae mundi used by Piri equals 20, while in the other, it could mean a total of 34. Some have claimed that the source maps were found in the ancient Library of Alexandria, based on Piri's allusions to Alexander the Great, the founder of Alexandria, Ptolemy I, who ruled Alexandria in the IV century BC, and Claudius Ptolemy, the Greek geographer and cartographer who lived in Alexandria during the 2nd century AD. Gregory McIntosh states "Arab writers often confused Claudius Ptolemy, the geographer of the second century C.E., with Ptolemy I, one of Alexander's generals... Piri Reis has undoubtedly made the same error, resulting in his believing the charts and maps were from the time of Ptolemy I instead of Claudius Ptolemy."

The map was discovered serendipitously on 9 October 1929, through the philological work of the German theologian Gustav Adolf Deissmann (1866-1937). He had been commissioned by the Turkish Ministry of Education to catalogue the Topkapı Palace library's non-Islamic items. At Deissmann's request to search the palace for old maps and charts, the director Halil Edhem (1861-1938) managed to find some disregarded bundles of material, which he handed over to Deissmann. Realizing that the map might be a unique find, Deissmann showed it to the orientalist Paul Kahle, who identified it as a map drawn by Piri Reis. The discovery caused an international sensation, as it represented the only then known copy of a world map of Christopher Columbus (1451-1506), and was the only XVI-century map that showed South America in its proper longitudinal position in relation to Africa. Geographers had spent several centuries unsuccessfully searching for a "lost map of Columbus" that was supposedly drawn while he was in the West Indies.

After reading about the map's discovery in The Illustrated London News, United States Secretary of State Henry L. Stimson contacted the United States Ambassador to Turkey Charles H. Sherrill and requested that an investigation be launched to find the Columbus source map, which he believed may have been in Turkey. In turn, the Turkish government complied with Stimson's request, but they were unsuccessful in locating any of the source maps.

10000000 Lirasi 1999 10000000 Lirasi 1999At bottom, a little right from center is the Ottoman kalyon of XVI century (time of Piri Reis).

Denomination in numerals are in bottom left and top right corners, in words - in bottom right corner.

Comments:

Withdrawn from circulation since 01.01.2006.