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1000 Yen 1984, Japan

in Krause book Number: 97b
Years of issue: 01.11.1984
Edition: --
Signatures: no signature
Serie: Serie D (1984 - 1993)
Specimen of: 1984
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 150 x 76
Printer: National Printing Bureau, Tokyo

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

1000 Yen 1984

Description

Watermark:

1000 yen 1984Natsume Sōseki (夏目漱石) and two round symbols in lower left corner.

Avers:

1000 Yen 1984

1000 yen 1984 1000 yen 1984Natsume Sōseki (夏目 漱石, February 9, 1867 – December 9, 1916), born Natsume Kinnosuke (夏目 金之助) was a Japanese novelist. He is best known for his novels Kokoro, Botchan, I Am a Cat and his unfinished work Light and Darkness. He was also a scholar of British literature and composer of haiku, kanshi, and fairy tales. From 1984 until 2004, his portrait appeared on the front of the Japanese 1000 yen note. In Japan, he is often considered the greatest writer in modern Japanese history. He has had a profound effect on almost all important Japanese writers since.

Sōseki's literary career began in 1903, when he began to contribute haiku, renku (haiku-style linked verse), haitaishi (linked verse on a set theme) and literary sketches to literary magazines, such as the prominent Hototogisu, edited by his former mentor Masaoka Shiki, and later by Takahama Kyoshi. However, it was the public success of his satirical novel I Am a Cat in 1905 that won him wide public admiration as well as critical acclaim.

He followed on this success with short stories, such as "Rondon tō" ("Tower of London") in 1905 and the novels Botchan ("Little Master"), and Kusamakura ("Grass Pillow") in 1906, which established his reputation, and which enabled him to leave his post at the university for a position with Asahi Shimbun in 1907, and to begin writing full-time. Much of his work deals with the relation between Japanese culture and Western culture. Especially his early works are influenced by his studies in London; his novel Kairo-kō was the earliest and only major prose treatment of the Arthurian legend in Japanese. He began writing one novel a year before his death from a stomach ulcer in 1916.

Major themes in Sōseki's works include ordinary people fighting against economic hardship, the conflict between duty and desire (a traditional Japanese theme; see giri), loyalty and group mentality versus freedom and individuality, personal isolation and estrangement, the rapid industrialization of Japan and its social consequences, contempt of Japan's aping of Western culture, and a pessimistic view of human nature. Sōseki took a strong interest in the writers of the Shirakaba (White Birch) literary group. In his final years, authors such as Akutagawa Ryūnosuke and Kume Masao became close followers of his literary style.

On left side is a rosette with pattern.

Denominations in numerals are in top corners. In words on left side, centered.

Revers:

1000 Yen 1984

Performing on the banknote of their wedding dance cranes - not ordinary, but Japanese (The red-crowned crane), the very existence of which is under threat. At present, there are only about four hundred individuals. They live in Hokkaido. When it was decided that they should be the company of Natsume Soseki on banknote, the artists of the printing yard went to Hokkaido to watch them and take pictures. But they were waiting for failure, and therefore had to use the old photographs.

The red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis), also called the Japanese crane (Japanese: 丹頂鶴 or タンチョウヅル; rōmaji: tanchōzuru) or Manchurian crane, is a large East Asian crane among the rarest cranes in the world. In some parts of its range, it is known as a symbol of luck, longevity, and fidelity.

Adult red-crowned cranes are named for a patch of red bare skin on the crown, which becomes brighter during mating season. Overall, they are snow white in color with black on the wing secondaries, which can appear almost like a black tail when the birds are standing, but the real tail feathers are actually white. Males are black on the cheeks, throat, and neck, while females are pearly gray in these spots. The bill is olive green to greenish horn, the legs are slate to grayish black, and the iris is dark brown.

In the spring and summer, the migratory populations of the red-crowned crane breed in Siberia (eastern Russia), northeastern China and occasionally in northeastern Mongolia (i.e., Mongol Daguur Strictly Protected Area). The breeding range centers in Lake Khanka, on the border of China and Russia. Normally, the crane lays two eggs, with only one surviving. Later, in the fall, they migrate in flocks to Korea and east-central China to spend the winter. Vagrants have also been recorded in Taiwan. In addition to the migratory populations, a resident population is found in eastern Hokkaidō in Japan. This species nests in wetlands and rivers. In the wintering range, their habitat is comprised mainly by paddy fields, grassy tidal flats, and mudflats. In the flats, the birds feed on aquatic invertebrates and, in cold, snowy conditions, the birds switch to mainly living on rice gleanings from the paddy fields.

1000 yen 1984Breeding maturity is thought to be reached at 3-4 years of age. All mating and egg-laying is largely restricted to April and early May. A red-crowned crane pair duets in various situations, helping to establish formation and maintenance of the pair bond, as well as territorial advertisement and agonistic signaling. The pair moves rhythmically until they are standing close, throwing their heads back and letting out a fluting call in unison, often triggering other pairs to start duetting, as well. As it is occurs year around, the social implications of dancing are complex in meaning. However, dancing behavior is generally thought to show excitement in the species. To strengthen the bond, red-crowned cranes engage in dual honking rituals before performing a dance.

Denominations in numerals are in lower left and top right corners.

Comments:

Black serial number printed in 1984.

Blue serial number printed in 1990.