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100 Litų 1928, Lithuania

in Krause book Number: 25a
Years of issue: 31.03.1928
Edition: --
Signatures: V. Jurgutis, J. Paknys, Julius Kaupas, Z. Starkus, P. Grajauskas
Serie: 1927 - 1930 Issue
Specimen of: 1928
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 145 x 80
Printer: Bradbury, Wilkinson & Company Limited, New Malden

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

100 Litų 1928

Description

Watermark:

100 Litu 1928 100 Litu 1928

The engraving of watermark portrait is made after the painting by A. Piańkoŭski, 1838.

Kęstutis (Belarusian: Кейстут; born ca. 1297, died on 3 August or 15 August 1382, in Kreva) was a ruler of medieval Lithuania. He was the Duke of Trakai and governed the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, 1342-1382, together with his brother Algirdas (until 1377), and with his nephew Jogaila (until 1381). He ruled over the Lithuanians and Ruthenians.

The name "Kęstutis" is a derivative from the old form of the name Kęstas, which is a shortened version of such Lithuanian names as Kęstaras, Kęstautas (there kęs-ti means to cope). Historic writing sources reflect different Lithuanian pronunciation. Kęstutis is the father of Vytautas.

Kęstutis was the son of the Grand Duke Gediminas. His younger brother, Jaunutis, succeeded his father as Grand Duke of Lithuania. Together with his brother Algirdas, Kestutis conspired to remove Jaunutis from power. They were successful in their efforts. They divided their holdings into an eastern and western sphere of influence. The Duchy of Trakai was established in 1337 as a result. Kęstutis' efforts were concentrated in the west, while Algirdas' were concentrated in the eastern part of these territories. Kęstutis organized the defence of western Lithuania and Samogitia against the Teutonic Knights, and organized raids against the German Order.

Kęstutis employed different military as well as diplomatic means in his struggle on the western borders of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In 1349, to avoid further clashes with the Teutonic Order, he started negotiations with Pope Clement VI for the Christianization of Lithuania, receiving promises for royal crowns for him and his sons. Algirdas willingly remained aside of the business and was concerned with the order in the Ruthenian part of the state. The intermediary in the negotiations, Polish King Casimir III, made an unexpected assault on Volhynia and Brest in October 1349 that ruined the Kęstutis' plan. During the Polish-Lithuanian war for Volhynia, King Louis I of Hungary made a peace agreement with Kęstutis on 15 August 1351, according to which Kęstutis obliged himself to accept Christianity and provide the Kingdom of Hungary with military aid, in exchange for the royal crown. The agreement was approved with a pagan ritual by Kęstutis to convince the other side. In fact, Kęstutis had no intentions to comply with the agreement and ran away on their road to Buda.

100 Litu 1928Algirdas died in 1377 and left the throne to Jogaila, his eldest son from the second marriage with Uliana of Tver. Kęstutis and Vytautas continued to recognize Jogaila's authority even when his right of inheritance was challenged by Andrei of Polotsk, Algirdas' eldest son from the first marriage with Maria of Vitebsk. The Teutonic Knights continued their crusade against pagan Lithuania and both Jogaila and Kęstutis looked for opportunities to establish a truce. On September 29, 1379, a ten-year truce was signed in Trakai. It was the last treaty that Kęstutis and Jogaila signed jointly. In February 1380, Jogaila, without Kęstutis, made a five-month truce with the Livonian Order to protect his Lithuanian domains and Polotsk.

On 31 May 1380, Jogaila and Grand Master Winrich von Kniprode signed the secret Treaty of Dovydiškės. Based on the terms of the accord, Jogaila agreed not to intervene during attacks by the Teutonic Knights against Kęstutis or his children. However, if providing aid to Kęstutis would be necessary to help to avoid any suspicions, it would not be a violation of the treaty. It remains controversial as motives behind the treaty are not entirely clear. Some historians blamed Uliana, mother of Jogaila, or his adviser Vaidila, while others pointed out generational differences: Kęstutis was about 80 years old and determined not to accept Christianity while Jogaila was about 30 years old and was looking for ways to convert and modernize the country. Still others suggested that the treaty was primarily directed against Andrei and his allies – brother Dmitry of Bryansk and Grand Duke of Moscow Dmitri Donskoi. Jogaila, having secured his western front, allied himself with the Golden Horde against the Grand Duchy of Moscow for the upcoming Battle of Kulikovo.

Without violating the Treaty of Dovydiškės, the Teutonic Knights raided the Duchy of Trakai and Samogitia twice. In August 1381, Komtur of Osterode informed Kęstutis about the secret treaty. In the same month Kęstutis took advantage of Polotsk's rebellion against Skirgaila. Jogaila was away to subdue the rebellion and his absence provided a good opportunity to capture Vilnius, capital of the Grand Duchy. Kęstutis became the Grand Duke while Jogaila was taken prisoner on his way back to Vilnius. Jogaila pledged his loyalty to Kęstutis and was released. He received his patrimony, Kreva and Vitebsk. Kęstutis resumed war with the Teutonic Knights: his army raided Warmia and attempted to capture Georgenburg (Jurbarkas).

On 12 June 1382, while Kęstutis was away to fight Dymitr Korybut of Novhorod-Siversky and Vytautas was away in Trakai, residents of Vilnius, led by merchant Hanul of Riga, let Jogaila's army into the city. The merchants were dissatisfied with Kęstutis' policies as they were hurting the economy, especially trade with Livonia. Jogaila recaptured the throne and allied with the Teutonic Knights. In the meantime Kęstutis rallied his supporters in Samogitia, his son Vytautas sought soldiers in Hrodna, and his brother Liubartas recruited in Galicia–Volhynia. In August 1382 armies of Kęstutis and Jogaila met near Trakai for a decisive battle, but it never began. Both sides agreed to negotiate. Kęstutis and Vytautas arrived to Jogaila's camp, but were arrested and sent to a prison in the Kreva Castle. Their army was disbanded. On 15 August, five days after imprisonment, Kęstutis was found dead by Skirgaila. Jogaila claimed that he hanged himself, but few believed him. Jogaila organized a large pagan funeral to Kęstutis: his body was burned with horses, weapons, and other treasures in Vilnius. Vytautas managed to escape and continued to fight Jogaila to become Grand Duke in 1392.

Avers:

100 Litų 1928

100 Litu 1928 100 Litu 1928

On left side is female allegory of Lithuania, in the national costume of the region of Aukštaitija. In her hands she holds a cornucopia - a symbol of wealth and prosperity. More about this woman please read below!

100 Litu 1928

Aukštaitija (Highlands, marked by light-brown color on the map) is the name of one of five ethnographic regions of Lithuania. The name comes from the relatively high elevation of the region, particularly the eastern parts.

Historically Aukštaitija had been correspondent to the Duchy of Lithuania up to the 13th century. Its initial capital most likely was Kernavė. In the treaty of Gediminas of 1322, Aukštaitija is named terra Eustoythen ('land of Aukštaitians(=highlanders)'). Aukštaitija was mentioned as Austechia in Chronicon terrae Prussiae written around 1326. Politically, since the end of the XIII century, it comprised the Duchy of Vilnius/Lithuania and Duchy of Trakai, and perhaps was employed to refer to them both taken together. Since the 15th century, corresponding Trakai Voivodeship and Vilnius Voivodeship made up Aukštaitija, as a political and ethnically based unit, also known as Lithuania Propria.

The Lithuanian folk costume is not just clothing, it is a reflection of the nature of the nation, accurately reflecting its ethnic roots, historical, musical and dance traditions.

Centuries have changed, the government has changed, people have changed and, with people, the appearance of clothes has also been constantly changing

The most noticeable changes in clothing are changes, it reflects the unique uniqueness of the country and peoples. People always wanted to be attractive. In clothes, their ideas about worthy and beautiful are most clearly manifested.

In clothes, in the national costume of Lithuania, as well as in works of art, the spiritual values ​​accumulated by society are embodied.

The clothes of past times, folk costume, carry in itself the most valuable information, it is an indispensable object of research for historians

Currently, the famous designer houses represent 4 or even 6 (and maybe more?) Collections per year. And the value of clothing in our time is not very high. And in principle, our future descendants, historians are unlikely to say something about us, our clothes.

But in those, former times, clothes were valued and protected. She spent a lot of work on it. To sew the fabric, embroidered to learn from childhood. Almost all the items of peasant clothes were made independently in their household. Sluggish and lazy could easily be recognized through unattractive clothing. Long winter evenings brought together handymen and needlewomen somewhere in the spacious hut of wealthy fellow villagers.

They burnt the beam, sang songs and worked tirelessly. At the same time, they learned from those who are older, and from each other. So the experience of generations was transmitted and centuries-old traditions were accumulated.

Lithuanian women since ancient times were known as skilled weavers. Embroidered by them male and female Lithuanian folk costumes, tablecloths, bedspreads, towels - are distinguished by their beauty and originality.

In those old days, the basic material for the creation of the national costume of Lithuania was flax and wool. Products decorated with national ornaments, mostly geometric - the most popular was the cage, crosses and stripes. The color scheme was built on contrast.

Red and green, orange and blue, yellow and violet, as well as black and white, were the main colors of the Lithuanian folk costume.

Traditional Lithuanian women's clothing consisted of a white blouse with long sleeves, a long broad and bright skirt and apron. Girls decorated their heads with wreaths or crowns with ribbons. Married women wore white kerchiefs made of flax. Women of all ages in Lithuania, of course, loved to wear amber jewelry.

Men's fashion was much simpler - usually it was a gray coat of rough heavy fabric, light linen shirts, striped pants or a cage. But they were banded with colored wide ribbons.

National shoes were made at home by hand.

In Lithuania, national costumes differed depending on the area of ​​residence. (lithuania.euromapa.net rus.)

100 Litu 1928

In lower left corner is the stylized coat with The Columns of Gediminas or Pillars of Gediminids.

Under the symbol is the inscription: "VIENAS LITAS TURI 0,150462 GRAMŲ GRYNO AUKSO" ("One Litas is equal to 0.150462 grams of pure gold").

It is one of the earliest symbols of Lithuania and one of its historical coats of arms. They were used in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, initially as a rulers' personal insignia, a state symbol, and later as a part of heraldic signs of leading aristocracy. During the period between World War I and World War II they were used by the Lithuanian Republic as a minor state symbol, e. g. on Litas coins and military equipment.

The symbol appears in the following form: horizontal line at bottom, vertical lines extent up at both sides. The square at the middle of the horizontal line is about half as tall as the vertical lines. Another vertical line rises from the top center of the square, giving an overall appearance is close to a trident. This form is the one usually seen in modern times, often drawn on walls and fences as protest against the Soviet occupation of Lithuania.

It is notable that the ancient pre-Christian symbols of Lithuania did not follow the same strict rules of heraldry as their western counterparts. Thus this symbol was used in Or and argent, usually on the field gules, and was depicted in various shapes on flags, banners and shields.

The name "Columns of Gediminas" was given in the XIX century by historian Teodor Narbutt, who supposed that the symbol was Gediminas' insignia. The more exact name of the symbol is the Pillars of Gediminids, since there is no direct evidence of its connection with Grand Duke of Lithuania Gediminas.

100 Litu 1928

On the perimeter of the banknote is a ribbon with Lithuanian folk patterns.

Below are the symbols, meaning the spirit of the nation and the national identity: the spinning mill (folk crafts), the sieve, the plow, the sheaf of wheat (agriculture), the globe (travel, research), the palette (art), the compass (architecture), books (education), a kid with a caduceus in his hands (the key symbol of secret knowledge).

100 Litu 1928 100 Litu 1928

On left side of banknote shown a woman, dressed in national costume of Aukštaitija and holding a cornucopia. This woman is an allegory, depicting Lithuania as a modern country with a growing industry and developed agriculture.

The interesting thing is, that this woman is not the artist's (Adam Galdikas) imagination, but a real person!

This is Elena Turauskienė - Lithuanian diplomat, public figure, press employee's Edvardas Turauskas wife. In 1927, in Kaunas, she posed for the artist Adam Galdikas.

Elena Turauskienė was born on 15 March 1906 In Paris, it was George and Helen (Jurgelionytė) Jankauskas elder daughter. Elena met Edvardas after his arrival to Paris to study law, at the Sorbonne. They got engaged, Edward returned to Lithuania, held a wedding, and Elena alone, by train, also returned to the Telšiai, where whole family waited for her. At 8 August 1928 they were married.

Edvardas worked for the daily newspaper "Morning", where he was a Chief editor, then - director of ELTA (Lithuanian telegraph agency), was Extraordinary Envoy and Representative in Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Romania, resided in Prague. During the II world war the couple fled to the West.

This romantic story about her aunt, as well as provided some old family photos, told Carolina Masiulytė-Paliulienė - Paris-born actress, book-hawker Juozas Masiulis granddaughter. Elena Turauskienė was her mother's sister. At the moment Arūnas Paliuliai (her husband) and Carolina lives in Vilnius. (www.pinigumuziejus.lt lit.)

Denominations in numerals are in top and lower right corners, also centered. Centered in words.

Revers:

100 Litų 1928

100 Litu 1928 100 Litu 1928 Bank

The Bank of Lithuania building (Maironio g. 25), in Kaunas.

The Lithuanian bank started its activity on October 2, 1922, in Kaunas.

In the neo-classical style, with an area of ​​about 6,000 square meters, the palace of the Lithuanian Bank was built by the architect Michael Songailo. The construction work was carried out by architects Arnas Funkas and Felix Vizbaras. The first stone in the foundation of the building was laid at March 12, 1925.

At the end of 1928, the prelate Jonas Mačiulis-Maironis consecrated Completion of the Bank of Lithuania.

Bank Bank Bank

The interior of the building was particularly luxurious: natural and artificial marble was used for decoration, floors were covered with clay tiles and parquet. The interior is decorated with decorative chandeliers and an expensive variety of furniture of different styles. The palace was equipped with electric elevators, mechanical heating, a reliable security system manufactured in England was equipped. Interior decor was complemented by paintings created by artists Petras Kalpokas, Vladas Didžiokas, Olga Dubeneckienė-Kalpokienė, Justino Vienožinskis, Juozo Mikėnas, Petro Rimšos, Kazio Šimonias, Antano Žmuidzinavičiaus, Adomas Galdikas, Kajetonas Sklėriaus and other artists. The bank building, at that time, was one of the most beautiful, expensive and significant buildings of Lithuania.

In 1940 here was the department of the State Bank of USSR. In 1970 the building was included in the list of architectural monuments. In 1991 it was transferred to the newly created bank of Lithuania, in 2003 it was declared a monument of cultural heritage. (istorineprezidentura.lt lit.)

Denominations in numerals are in all corners. Centered, at bottom, in words.

Comments:

Designer: Adomas Galdikas.

In 1927 -1930, in Lithuania, were issued new banknotes. New 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 Litas banknotes were printed in a "Bradbury, Wilkinson & Co. Ltd." A new type of banknote designs were created by famous painters: A. Galdikas, A. and V. Jomantas Žmuidzinavičius. The money represents the state, reflects the ideology of the latter, so the young Republic of Lithuania marked banknotes The National symbols of Dukes and public figures, portraits and images of major cities and coats of arms. Banknotes were portrayed the symbols that represent the spirit of the nation and national identity - the sower, Spinner, rafter, Lietuvaitė (Lithuanian) national costumes, Lithuanian folk art ornaments, small folk architecture, fabric patterns and stripes motifs. The projects of banknotes were considered and approved by the General Council of the Bank of Lithuania.