header Notes Collection

10 Dollars 1988, Singapore

in Krause book Number: 20
Years of issue: 01.03.1988
Signatures: Minister for finance: Dr. Richard Hu Tsu Tau
Serie: 3rd Series - Ship Series (1984-1999)
Specimen of: 1988
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 141 x 69
Printer: TDLR (Thomas de la Rue & Company), London

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

10 Dollars 1988




Head of the lion.

When it was first unveiled, some sections of the public felt that it should have been facing rightwards to represent a more forward looking nature. However, the original left-facing lion was maintained.


10 Dollars 1988

10 dollars 1988 10 dollars 1988Centered is the barter trading vessel Palari.

The palari is a re-finement of the Buginese pajala, inset, which has come down unchanged from Phoenician times.

The Buginese (The Buginese people are an ethnic group - the most numerous of the three major linguistic and ethnic groups of South Sulawesi, in the southwestern province of Sulawesi, third largest island of Indonesia), who form the largest group of these sea people, have two types of boats. Their pajala is almost an exact replica of the sailing vessels in which the Phoenicians circumnavigated the Cape of Good Hope some 2000 years before the Portuguese succeeded in repeating the feat. It is hardly possible two types of boats so similar in design sprang up independently and there is considerable evidence to show that the Malay pajala is a direct descendant of the Phoenician craft.

The second type vessel used by Buginese is called a palari and it simply a refine vessel of the pajala. Up to a certain point in construction they are identical. But in the palari the hull is continued to a greater height, a bowsprit and overhanging poop added and it is decked. Today, under strict Dutch supervision, they have become more or less honest traders whose services are indispensable in gathering the small cargoes of copra and rice throughout the Indies. But the change has been in effect only since the turn of the XX century and many of the old men still remember the good old days when trading simply meant raiding.

The palari, a highly distinctive schooner-type, comes from ports of Southern Celebes and was evolved by the Bugis, who are well-known seamen of the East Indian Archipelago. Using for the base of the hull a local boat of some antiquity, the Bugis added a top-hamper with a large stern cabin and a long heavy bowsprit in imitation of the European vessels of the past. During the first 30 years after the founding of Singapore, ships of the Bugis played an important part in the inter-island trade, but they declined as steamers were more and more extensively used. Since the war there has been an insufficiency of steamships to carry this trade and the old sailing vessels have come temporarily into their own, carrying much of the inter-island trade over all the seas from New Guinea westward to Singapore. (

Top left is coat of arms of Singapore.


The National Coat of Arms of Singapore is the heraldic symbol representing the Southeast Asian island nation of Singapore. It was adopted in 1959, the year Singapore became self-governing within the British Empire. The committee that created it, headed by then Deputy Prime Minister Toh Chin Chye, was also responsible for the national flag and the national anthem of Singapore.

At the center of the emblem is a red shield bearing a white crescent (a new moon, representing a rising young nation) and five white stars (representing various national ideals including multiculturalism), supported by a lion and a tiger (representing Singapore and Malaysia respectively); below them is a blue ribbon inscribed with Majulah Singapura in gold, Malay for "Onward Singapore".

The central emblem of the coat of arms is a red shield with five white stars resting above a white crescent, similar to the crescent and stars used on the Singapore flag and such other national symbols as the national ensign for civilian ships. Red symbolizes "universal brotherhood and equality of man" and white "pervading and everlasting purity and virtue". The crescent represents a new moon, which reflects "a young nation on the ascendant", while the five-pointed stars "stand for the nation's ideals of democracy, peace, progress, justice and equality".

The supporters of the shield are a lion and a tiger: the tiger symbolizes the nation's historical connections to Malaysia (which Singapore was a state of from 1963 to 1965) while the lion represents Singapore itself. Below the supporters is a blue ribbon on which the national motto, Majulah Singapura, is written in gold. Majulah Singapura is also the title of the national anthem; it means "Onward Singapore" in Malay, the national language of Singapore.

Right of center is the mythological bird Phoenix.

In Greek mythology, a phoenix (Ancient Greek: φοῖνιξ phoinix; Latin: phoenix, phœnix, fenix) is a long-lived bird that is cyclically regenerated or reborn.

Associated with the Sun, a phoenix obtains new life by arising from the ashes of its predecessor. According to some sources, the phoenix dies in a show of flames and combustion, although there are other sources that claim that the legendary bird dies and simply decomposes before being born again. According to some texts, the phoenix could live over 1,400 years before rebirth. Herodotus, Lucan, Pliny the Elder, Pope Clement I, Lactantius, Ovid, and Isidore of Seville are among those, who have contributed to the retelling and transmission of the phoenix motif.

In the historical record, the phoenix "could symbolize renewal in general as well as the sun, time, the Empire, metempsychosis, consecration, resurrection, life in the heavenly Paradise, Christ, Mary, virginity, the exceptional man, and certain aspects of Christian life".

10 dollars 1988In lower right corner is The Round Scad (Decapterus macrosoma).

The Round scad is a species of fish in the Carangidae. It was described in 1829 by the French zoologist, Georges Cuvier. Although the Round scad is considered a good food fish, it is mostly caught for use as bait.

The Round scad is a cigar-shaped fish, with greenish coloration on top and white below. Their opercles usually have a small, black spot. The Round scad has nine spines on its dorsal fin and 30 to 34 soft rays. Their anal fins have only three spines and 26-29 soft rays. Round scad often have a yellow stripe running from the head to the caudal peduncle. The longest Round scad recorded was 30 centimeters long, which is not far from the average estimated adult length of 12 inches (30.48 cm.). It is claimed that the heaviest recorded specimen weighed 300 grams.

Known only from the Atlantic ocean, the Round scad is known from Nova Scotia in the north to Rio de Janeiro in the south, including the Caribbean sea and Gulf of Mexico on the western side. On the eastern side, they are known from Morocco in the north to South Africa in the south, including the islands of Madeira, the Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Ascension Island and St. Helena.

Round scad make their home in the ocean's Neritic zone and are also common near beaches. They are also known to gather near the bottom in large shoals. Round scad mostly eat copepods, but have also been known to eat pteropods, ostracods, and gastropod larvae.

Denomination in numerals are in top right and lower left corners, in words lower, centered.


10 Dollars 1988

In lower left corner is, again, the Round Scad (Decapterus macrosoma).

Centered is outline map of Singapore.

10 dollars 1988 10 dollars 1988Public Housing. Presumably - Dakota Crescent - one of the oldest Public Housing districts of Singapore and the famous (locally) Dove playground.

Here is one article, which I found in web:

"One cannot talk about Dakota Crescent without giving an introduction about one of the oldest public housing estate in Singapore. Here you’ll see many low rise flats no more than 17 storeys amidst the low 4 storeys walk-up flats that have been built since 1958.

Being in this old estate is quite a surreal feeling where you can’t help but feel like you’ve been plucked from the present and transported back to the 80s.

The Dove Playground is designed by Mr Khor Ean Ghee in 1979, the the same man who designed the other iconic playgrounds in Singapore such as the well-loved Dragon playground in Toa Payoh.

The Dove Playground has a distinctive faded blue tile appearance. And looking at its structure, I presume it was one of the larger playground in its glory days with two structures connected by a bridge. It also has slides (a winding side and two slides), bridge, fireman’s pole, even rubber tire swings set in a sandbox.

Having been around for the past 35 years, the playground is showing signs of its age. But nevertheless still remains fun for little Sophie as she raced Daddy across the bridge, up the stairs and down the slide.

But the Terrazzo slide proved to be more difficult to slide down compared to the newer playgrounds that she’s used to. But no worries as the kids always find other ways to play on the slides like racing down.

These rubber tire swings are a sure sign of how long the playground has been around and I remember being so cautious, when I used to sit in them, as I got my butt stuck in them on a few occasions?

Another things that we don’t see now are sandboxes or sand pits, which have been replaced by rubber mats, which I’m sure mums with little kids will appreciate, since sandboxes can be bed of bacteria with cat pee, cigarette butts, litter and God knows what else. Plus, imagine if the babies grab a handful of sand into the mouth!

Sadly, this Dove Playground, like many of Singapore’s heritage sites, is going down to make way for estate renewal and modernization by end of 2016.

Hopefully the other iconic playgrounds will still be preserved for us to bring Sophie to play at." (

Vanda Miss JoaquimAcross all field of banknote are the national flowers of Singapore - Vanda Miss Joaquim.

Naturalized Armenian women constituted a serious competitor to other participants of Singapore flower exhibitions. Most of the 1890 prize for his plant got Maggie Cheyter, Irene and Rips Johannes, but dominated by women of different generations of the family Joachim, received in 1897, 18 of the 104 prizes. In the history of the country has remained an Armenian Agnes Joaquim, that gave orchid variety "Vanda Miss Joaquim". In 1947, this amazingly beautiful flower was chosen as the emblem of the Progressive Party, and in 1981 - the national flower, symbol of Singapore.

The eldest daughter of Parsika and Hurel Joaquim, Agnes, from her youth fond of floriculture, as well as many other women of her family. From 1893 to 1895 years, it has taken over three annual exhibitions in Singapore, a total of twenty-seven first places and fifteen second. But her finest hour came in the 1899th, to the best in many years show, "highlight" which became her "Vanda", obtained by crossing two varieties of orchids - Burmese Vanda teres and Malay Vanda hookeriana. New flower Agnes withdrew in 1893, and at the same time introduced to Henry Ridley, Director of the Singapore Botanic Gardens. He sent information about the flower in the flower authoritative edition of the "Gardeners' Chronicle", where it was published. In 1897, "Vanda Miss Joaquim" first blossomed on European soil. This orchid has caused delight at the Royal Agricultural Show in London, where a certificate has been awarded the first category. To date, nearly 440 hybrids obtained by crossing varieties of flowers "Vanda Miss Joaquim".

Denomination in numerals are in top left and lower right corners.


The Ship Series of currency notes is the third set of notes to be issued for circulation in Singapore. Issued in the years 1984 to 1999, it retains the number of denominations as was in the previous two series of notes, but switches the $20 note for the $2 one.

A maritime theme to reflect Singapore's maritime heritage was adopted, and progressively shows across the various denominations, the different kinds of ships which have plied Singapore's waters as the country developed. These vignettes are located on the front of the note. On the back, various scenes depicting Singapore's achievements are shown, as well as an orchid, to symbolize the country's national flower.