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20 Pounds Sterling 1985, Kingdom of Great Britain

in Banknotes Book Number: SC351b
Years of issue: 08.04.1985
Edition:
Signatures: Chief General Manager: Mr. Arthur Richard Cole-Hamilton (in office from 1982 till 1992)
Serie: Scotland
Specimen of: 29.03.1982
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 162 x 93
Printer: TDLR (Thomas de la Rue & Company), London

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20 Pounds Sterling 1985

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Repeated sailing ship. A ship in full sail taken from the Union Bank of Scotland's coat of arms. Originally the motif of the Ship Bank, which Glasgow-based institution subsequently merged with the Union Bank of Scotland. This latter was then absorbed by Bank of Scotland in 1955.

Avers:

20 Pounds Sterling 1985

On the banknote are shown:

The photo, made approx. in 1900, on which lord Kelvin standing near binnacle with sea compass and holding the marine azimuth mirror in his hands.

Under his right arm is the place for "soft metals".

On background is part of map, on which are visible the United Kingdom and Ireland.

Now more about everything:

20 Pounds 1985The engraving on banknote is made after this photo of Lord Kelvin, made in 1900, on which lord Kelvin standing near binnacle with sea compass and holding the marine azimuth mirror in his hands. Under his right arm is the place for "soft metals".

William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin (26 June 1824 – 17 December 1907) was a Scots-Irish mathematical physicist and engineer, who was born in Belfast in 1824. At the University of Glasgow he did important work in the mathematical analysis of electricity and formulation of the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and did much to unify the emerging discipline of physics in its modern form. He worked closely with mathematics professor Hugh Blackburn in his work. He also had a career as an electric telegraph engineer and inventor, which propelled him into the public eye and ensured his wealth, fame and honour. For his work on the transatlantic telegraph project he was knighted in 1866 by Queen Victoria, becoming Sir William Thomson. He had extensive maritime interests and was most noted for his work on the mariner's compass, which had previously been limited in reliability.

Absolute temperatures are stated in units of kelvin in his honour. While the existence of a lower limit to temperature (absolute zero) was known prior to his work, Lord Kelvin is widely known for determining its correct value as approximately −273.15 degree Celsius or −459.67 degree Fahrenheit.

He was ennobled in 1892 in recognition of his achievements in thermodynamics, and of his opposition to Irish Home Rule, becoming Baron Kelvin, of Largs in the County of Ayr. He was the first British scientist to be elevated to the House of Lords. The title refers to the River Kelvin, which flows close by his laboratory at the University of Glasgow. His home was the imposing red sandstone mansion Netherhall, in Largs. Despite offers of elevated posts from several world-renowned universities Lord Kelvin refused to leave Glasgow, remaining Professor of Natural Philosophy for over 50 years, until his eventual retirement from that post. The Hunterian Museum at the University of Glasgow has a permanent exhibition on the work of Lord Kelvin including many of his original papers, instruments and other artifacts such as his smoking pipe.

Always active in industrial research and development, he was recruited around 1899 by George Eastman to serve as vice-chairman of the board of the British company Kodak Limited, affiliated with Eastman Kodak.

20 Pounds 1985 20 Pounds 1985Lord Kelvin standing near binnacle with sea compass.

A binnacle is a waist-high case or stand on the deck of a ship, generally mounted in front of the helmsman, in which navigational instruments are placed for easy and quick reference as well as to protect the delicate instruments. Its traditional purpose was to hold the ship's magnetic compass, mounted in gimbals to keep it level while the ship pitched and rolled. A binnacle may be subdivided into sections and its contents typically include one or more compasses and an oil lamp or other light source. Other devices such as a sand timer for estimating speed may have been stored in the binnacle as well.

The construction of many early (mid-XVIII century) binnacles used iron nails, which were later discovered to cause magnetic deviations in compass readings. As the development of the compass and understanding of magnetism progressed, greater attention was given to binnacle construction to avoid compass disturbances caused by iron.

With the introduction of iron-clad ships the magnetic deviation observed in compasses became more severe. Methods of compensation by arranging iron or magnetic objects near the binnacle were developed. In 1854, a new type of binnacle was patented by John Gray of Liverpool which directly incorporated adjustable correcting magnets on screws or rack and pinions. This was improved again when Lord Kelvin patented in the 1880s another system of compass and which incorporated two compensating magnets. These are colloquially known as "Kelvin's balls" in the UK, and "navigator's balls" in the United States. Unlike most display binnacles today, which have the balls painted red and green to represent port and starboard side of the vessel, the balls shall be painted black or have another uniform color. The Royal Maritime museum at Greenwich, London, has an extensive collection of binnacles in correct colours.

The ship's "binnacle list" is the medical department's report of personnel at sick bay, excused from that day's duty.

Under lord's right arm is the place for "soft metals".

A little bit about it:

Deviation of a magnetic compass:

the deviation of the compass sensor element from the direction of the magnetic meridian by a magnetic field of the vessel. All parts of the vessel made of magnetic material are magnetized by the magnetic field of the Earth in the period of construction and during operation. The value of the magnetization depends on the strength of Earth's magnetic field and the magnetic properties of iron ship. The deviation measured by the angle between the magnetic compass and meridians in the true horizon of the observer plane. It is not constant, but varies depending on the course of the ship and latitude. To improve the accuracy of course indication and direction finding using a magnetic compass deviation destroyed. The principle of destruction Deviations based on the establishment of the center of the compass with magnets and soft iron forces, equal in magnitude and opposite in direction of the forces that create deviations. Residual deviation should not exceed 2-3 degrees. To take into account the amendments drawn up a table of residual deviations. Marine electrical installation and cable DC lines create an electromagnetic field acting on the magnetic compass. The angle between the compass meridians when activating and deactivating the electrical system is called electromagnetic deviation (EMD). EMD size depends on the distance between the compass and the source of the electromagnetic field and current in it. Destruction of EMD by a special compensator consisting of three mutually perpendicular electromagnets installed directly under the compass bowler. Windings of the electromagnets are connected to a DC power source, created EMD. (www.korabel.ru .rus)

20 Pounds 1985Lord kelvin holds the Marine azimuth mirror in his hands.

William Thomson described a new "Marine Azimuth Mirror" at the 1877 meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, and patented the design in Britain and the U.S. This instrument is an example of the improved design, with a reflecting prism in place of the original mirror. Thomson introduced this form in the early 1880s. The signature indicates that it was made during the period 1900-1913. The base bears the inscriptions "KELVIN & JAMES WHITE, LIMITED. GLASGOW" and "LORD KELVIN’S (SIR WM THOMSON) PATENTS No 5713." The U.S. Coast & Geodetic Survey transferred the instrument to the Smithsonian in 1929.

Ref: William Thomson, "Device for Taking Azimuths," U.S. Patent #210,068.

William Thomson, "Azimuth Instrument," U.S. Patent #402,364. (americanhistory.si.edu)

Denominations in numeral and in words are centered, also in numerals in top right corner.

Revers:

20 Pounds Sterling 1985

20 Pounds 1985The lecture room in University of Glasgow, in which Lord Kelvin red his lectures.

At the University of Glasgow he did important work in the mathematical analysis of electricity and formulation of the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and did much to unify the emerging discipline of physics in its modern form. He worked closely with mathematics professor Hugh Blackburn in his work.

Launched in 1855 his work on thermo-electricity ( "Electrodynamic Qualities of Metals") caused an increase in experiments; in attended Glasgow University students, that marked the beginning of the first in the UK to practical work of students, as well as the beginning of the laboratory in physics in Glasgow.

Denomination in numerals is in top left corner.

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