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200 Rupees 1985, Mauritius

in Krause book Number: P39a
Years of issue: 1985
Edition:
Signatures: Governor: Mr. Indurduth Ramphul, Managing Director: Mr. Ranapartab Tacouri
Serie: 1985 - 1991 Issue
Specimen of: 1985
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 166 x 72
Printer: TDLR (Thomas de la Rue & Company), London

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

200 Rupees 1985

Description

Watermark:

200 Rupees 1985The Dodo (Raphus cucullatus) is an extinct flightless bird that was endemic to the island of Mauritius, east of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean. Its closest genetic relative was the also extinct Rodrigues Solitaire, the two forming the subfamily Raphinae of the family of pigeons and doves.

The closest living relative of the Dodo is the Nicobar Pigeon. A white Dodo was once incorrectly thought to have existed on the nearby island of Réunion.

Subfossil remains show the Dodo was about 1 meter (3.3 feet) tall and may have weighed 10-18 kg. (22-40 lb.) in the wild. The Dodo's appearance in life is evidenced only by drawings, paintings and written accounts from the XVII century.

Avers:

200 Rupees 1985

200 Rupees 1985Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam GCMG LRCP MRCS (Hindi: सर शिवसागर रामगुलाम; September 18, 1900 - December 15, 1985; often referred to as Chacha Ramgoolam) was a Mauritian politician, statesman and philanthropist. He was a leader in the Mauritian independence movement, and served as the first Chief Minister and Prime Minister of Mauritius, as well as its sixth Governor-General. He was the Chairperson of the Organisation of African Unity from 1976 to 1977. As the leader of the Labour Party, Ramgoolam fought for the rights of labourers and led Mauritius to independence in 1968.

After his tertiary studies in London, Ramgoolam, who was initially a fervent defendant of the British administration and its empire, started calling for mass movement in order to obtain equal treatment, consideration, education and chances for all Mauritians through his authorship in a newspaper. His views changed due to then-fate of the Indo-Mauritian community which was oppressed, uneducated and ill-treated by the elite. He later joined the Labour Party to align himself with other members who were asking for equal rights and adequate working conditions for workers (mainly laborers). He later took leadership of the fight fought by other party members including Dr. Maurice Cure, Emmanuel Anquetile, Dr. R. Seeneevasen and Dr. Hassenjee.

He later cooperated with the Independent Forward Block (IFB) led by the Bissoundoyal brothers (Pundit Basdeo and Sookdeo; who were demanding for a complete decolonization and the removal of British administration from all Mauritian territories) and the Committee D'action Musulmane (CAM) led by Abdool Razack Mohamed (who demanded constitutional guarantees for the Muslim and other minority communities in an effort to prevent a circumstantial Hindu hegemony, which never happened) to form the independence party and movement which eventually led to Independence after the Mauritian general election, 1967.

Few years later, he formed a national government with then opposition party Parti Mauricien Social Démocrate (PMSD; the nationalist, conservative and only party to lead a campaign against Independence and Hindus) led by Gaetan Duval in order to prevent the Mauritian economy and social environment to collapse.

As Mauritius' first Prime Minister, he played a crucial role in shaping modern Mauritius' government, political culture and foreign policy. He worked for the emancipation of the Mauritian population, established free universal education and free health care services, and introduced old age pensions. He is known as the "Father of the Nation". His son, Navin Ramgoolam, has had three terms as Prime Minister of Mauritius.

200 Rupees 1985On background (and lower, stylized) are the images of butterflies - The citrus swallowtail or Christmas butterfly (Papilio demodocus).

It is a large swallowtail butterfly common to Sub-Saharan Africa. After hatching from their egg, the caterpillar feeds on a few leaves on citrus trees before pupation.

Mature larvae are green with white or pink markings and eyespots. They grow to a maximum length of about 45 mm.

Mature caterpillars lack the camouflage of their immature state. Instead, when threatened by a bird or other predator, they produce a forked, orange-coloured organ known as an osmeterium. The organ emits a strong smell which acts as a discouragement to the predator. The larvae are sometimes known as "orange dogs".

coat of arms of Mauritius

The coat of arms of Mauritius is stipulated in the "Mauritius Laws 1990 Vol.2 SCHEDULE (Section 2)". The arms were designed by the Mayor of Johannesburg in 1906, Johann Van Der Puf. In the lower right quarter is a key and on the left-hand side is a white star, which are referred to in the Latin motto “Stella Clavisque Maris Indici” meaning “The Star and the Key of the Indian Ocean“.

Blazon:

The armorial ensigns and supporters of Mauritius are described as:

(a) for arms- Quarterly azure and gold.In the first quarter a gold Lymphad.

In the second, 3 palm trees vertical.

In the third, a key in pale the wards downwards gules.

In the Issuant, from the base a pile, and in chief a mullet argent.

(b) for the supporters-On the Dexter side, a dodo per bend sinister embattled gules and argent, and, on the sinister side, a Sambar deer per bend embattled argent and gules, each supporting a sugar cane erect properly.

(c) with the motto "Stella Clavisque Maris Indici” (Star and Key of the Indian Ocean).

Denominations in Western numerals are in the lower left and upper right corners. In the upper left and lower right corners they are in Bhojpuri language.

Bhojpuri is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Bhojpuri region of North India and Nepal. It is chiefly spoken in the Purvanchal region of Uttar Pradesh, in the western part of state of Bihar, and the northwestern part of Jharkhand in India. Bhojpuri is also spoken widely in Guyana, Suriname, Fiji, and Mauritius. It is one of the national languages of Guyana, Fiji, and Suriname.

The variant of Bhojpuri of the Indo-Surinamese is also referred to as Sarnami Hindustani, Sarnami Hindi or just Sarnami and has experienced considerable Creole and Dutch lexical influence. More Indians in Suriname know Bhojpuri, whereas in Guyana and Trinidad the language is largely forgotten. In Mauritius a dialect of Bhojpuri remains in use, and it is locally called Bojpury.

Revers:

200 Rupees 1985

200 Rupees 1985 200 Rupees 1985The State House (French: Le Château de Réduit) is the official Residence of the President of Mauritius. Originally Le Réduit, it was built as a fortress for defence against attack by Pierre Félix Barthelemy David in 1749. The mansion is in Réduit, Moka, near of the University of Mauritius and the end of the Plaines Wilhems District. It used to serve as the residence for former governors of Mauritius, but now it is the residence of the President. It's built on 240 acres (0.97 km2). The château has a garden where a multitude of flowers grow, as well as exotic and native trees. The château is open to the public two days a year, in October and March. The house has persisted through history; it was destroyed by a cyclone, rebuilt, and has been renovated since. It is also used by the military.

Pierre Félix Barthelemy David, successor of Bertrand Mahé de Labourdonnais, took office as Governor of the Isle de France on 8 October 1746 during a time of Anglo-French rivalry for colonial possessions in the Indian Ocean. His main goals was to take measures to fortify the island against an enemy attack. In a letter dated 28 March 1748, addressed to the management of the "Compagnie des Indes", he expressed his fears and anxiety to find a place in the interior of the island where access would be difficult and where a fortress could be built. This would protect women and valuables.

The Governor went into action before even receiving a reply from the authorities as he considered it necessary for the fortress to be completed quickly.

200 Rupees 1985 200 Rupees 1985David settled on an ideal site - a spur in the Moka Range, triangular in shape between steep gorges of the rivers Profonde and Cascade. However, in July 1748, Edward Boscawen, an English vice-admiral commanding an English fleet, approached Mauritius with intentions to take possession of it. He retreated because of French cannons situated at Petite Rivière. The French Company finally authorised David's project, aware of the attack. Under the direction of David, his "Le Réduit", a small fortress with battlements and a drawbridge, was completed in 1749. In 1754, one of the directors of the "Compagnie des Indes", Mr. Godeheu d'Igoville had doubted that Le Réduit would be able to withstand sustained attacks, although he admired David's work.

Under the administration of his successor, Jean Baptiste Charles de Lozier-Bouvet, botanist Jean-Baptiste Christophe Fusée-Aublet created the French garden of Le Réduit and later introduced many rare plants from America, Asia and Europe. Pepper plants and cinnamon trees were added by Antoine Marie Desforges-Boucher, last governor of the "Compagnie des Indes".

The Island became the property of France in 1764 and Le Réduit became the official residence of the governors, the first of whom was Jean Daniel Dumas. Despite many modifications made during the period 1764-1778 the Château was in ruins in 1778 due to white ants. Antoine de Guiran La Brillane, then governor, started reconstruction which was completed that year. A year later, on 28 April 1779, La Brillane died in Le Réduit. An inscription dated 1778 on the main door commemorates the reconstruction.

Successive governors followed La Brillane until 1810, when the English took possession of the island. The last French governor was Charles Mathieu Isidore Decaen. The First English Governor was Sir Robert Townsend Farquhar. Under the rule of Sir Robert, two botanists, Boyer and Helsenberg, explored Madagascar and the African coasts in search of rare plants for the gardens.

200 Rupees 1985 200 Rupees 1985 200 Rupees 1985Under the British rule, many modifications were brought to the Château. It needed extensive repairs after damage caused to it by cyclones in 1868 and 1892. The Château was saved from complete destruction during the cyclone in 1892 by the efforts of Governor Sir Henry Jerningham and his assistants. Sir Hesketh Bell was known to have taken an interest in the gardens of Le Réduit. He created an islet in the middle of the lake, linked by a bridge. He also installed a fountain on the north side of the Château. He also introduced many plants from Kew Gardens, London, and other plants from Ceylon.

200 Rupees 1985In 1921, he constructed a memorial named "Le Temple de l’Amour" in Pierre Félix Barthelemy David’s memory. This is situated near the ornamental lake at the end of the garden called “Bout du Monde” – from where one can see below the confluence of the rivers Profonde and Cascade. There is a marble inscription on the floor of the memorial which reads:

"TO M. BARTHELEMY DAVID / Gouverneur de l’Isle de France 1746 / the creator of Le Réduit / his Grateful Successors"

200 Rupees 1985On 12 March 1968 Mauritius achieved independence and Sir John Shaw Rennie became the first Governor-General. (vintagemauritius.org .англ)

Many thanks to the following pages for some photos and info:

vintagemauritius.org

president.govmu.org

Denominations in Bhojpuri language are in the lower right and upper left corners. In the upper right and lower left corners - in Western numerals.

Comments:

On banknote is denomination in numeral 200 visible (3 times) in UV by orange color!