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50 Rupees 1957, Indonesia

in Krause book Number: 50a
Years of issue: 01.08.1959 - 19.01.1960
Edition: --
Signatures: Gubernur: Sjafruddin Prawiranegara, Direktur: T.R.B. Sabaroedin
Serie: 1957 Series
Specimen of: 1957
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 150 x 76
Printer: TDLR (Thomas de la Rue & Company), London

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

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50 Rupees 1957

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Diponegoro (Mustahar; Antawirya; 11 November 1785 - 8 January 1855), also known as Dipanegara, was a Javanese prince who opposed the Dutch colonial rule. He played an important role in the Java War (1825-1830). In 1830, the Dutch exiled him to Makassar.

Diponegoro was born on 11 November 1785 in Yogyakarta, and was the eldest son of Sultan Hamengkubuwono III of Yogyakarta. When the sultan died in 1814, Diponegoro was passed over for the succession to the throne in favor of his younger half brother, Hamengkubuwono IV (r. 1814-1821), who was supported by the Dutch. Being a devout Muslim, Diponegoro was alarmed by the relaxing of religious observance at his half brother's court, as well as by the court's pro-Dutch policy.

In 1821, famine and plague spread in Java. Hamengkubuwono IV died, leaving only an infant son as heir. When the year-old boy was appointed as Sultan Hamengkubuwono V, there was a dispute over his guardianship. Diponegoro was again passed over, though he believed he had been promised the right to succeed his half brother. This series of natural disasters and political upheavals finally erupted into full-scale rebellion.

Dutch colonial rule was becoming unpopular among local farmers because of tax rises, crop failures and among Javanese nobles because the Dutch colonial authorities deprived them of their right to lease land. Because the local farmers and many nobles were ready to support Diponegoro and because he believed that he had been chosen by divine powers to lead a rebellion against the Christian colonials, he started a holy war against the Dutch. Dipenogoro was widely believed to be the Ratu Adil, the Just Ruler predicted in the Pralembang Joyoboyo.

The beginning of the war saw large losses on the side of the Dutch, due to their lack of coherent strategy and commitment in fighting Diponegoro's guerrilla warfare. Ambushes were set up, and food supplies were denied to the Dutch troops. The Dutch finally committed themselves to controlling the spreading rebellion by increasing the number of troops and sending General De Kock to stop the insurgency. De Kock developed a strategy of fortified camps (benteng) and mobile forces. Heavily-fortified and well-defended soldiers occupied key landmarks to limit the movement of Diponegoro's troops while mobile forces tried to find and fight the rebels. From 1829, Diponegoro definitively lost the initiative and he was put in a defensive position; first in Ungaran, then in the palace of the Resident in Semarang, before finally retreating to Batavia. Many troops and leaders were defeated or deserted.

In 1830 Diponegoro's military was as good as beaten and negotiations were started. Diponegoro demanded to have a free state under a sultan and wanted to become the Muslim leader (caliph) for the whole of Java. In March 1830 he was invited to negotiate under a flag of truce. He accepted but was taken prisoner on 28 March despite the flag of truce. De Kock claims that he had warned several Javanese nobles to tell Diponegoro he had to lessen his previous demands or that he would be forced to take other measures. The Dutch exiled him to Makassar.

Today Diponegoro is a National Hero of Indonesia, and Kodam IV/Diponegoro, the Central Java Military Region, is named after him. The Indonesian Navy has named two ships after him. The first of these was the lead ship Diponegoro: a (SIGMA-Class) corvette purchased from the Netherlands. The most recent is the KRI Diponegoro-365.

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50 Rupees 1957

Crocodylus siamensisSiamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) is a small to medium-sized freshwater crocodile native to Indonesia (Borneo and possibly Java), Brunei, East Malaysia, Laos, Cambodia, Burma, Thailand, and Vietnam. The species is critically endangered and already extirpated from many regions. Its other common names include: Siamese freshwater crocodile, Singapore small-grain, cocodrilo de Siam, crocodile du Siam, buaja, buaya kodok, chorakhe nam chuet, and soft-belly.

The Siamese crocodile is a medium-sized, freshwater crocodilian, with a relatively broad, smooth snout and an elevated, bony crest behind each eye. Overall, it is an olive-green colour, with some variation to dark-green. Young specimens measure 1.2-1.5 m. (3.9-4.9 ft.) and weigh 6-12 kg. (13-26 lb.), growing up to 2.1 m. (6.9 ft.) and a weight of 40-70 kg. (88-154 lb.) as an adult. The largest female specimens can measure 3.2 m. (10 ft.) and weight 150 kg. (330 lb.). Large male specimens can reach 4 m. (13 ft.) and 350 kg. (770 lb.) in weight. Most adults do not exceed 3 m. (10 ft.) in length, although hybrids in captivity can grow much larger.

The historic range of the Siamese crocodile included most of Southeast Asia. This species is now extinct in the wild or nearly extinct from most countries except Cambodia. Formerly it was found in Cambodia, Indonesia (Borneo and possibly Java), Laos, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Brunei, and Burma.

Siamese crocodiles occur in a wide range of freshwater habitats, including slow-moving rivers and streams, lakes, seasonal oxbow lakes, marshes and swamplands. It is one of the most endangered crocodiles in the wild, although it is extensively bred in captivity.

Denominations in numerals are in lower right and left corners. In top right in words.

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50 Rupees 1957

Masjid Raya Al Mashun Masjid Raya Al MashunGreat Mosque of Medan or Masjid Raya Al Mashun is a mosque located in Medan, Indonesia. The mosque was built in the year 1906 and completed in 1909. In beginning of its establishment, the mosque was a part of the Maimun palace complex. Its architectural style combines Middle Eastern, Indian and Spanish elements. The mosque has an octagonal shape and has wings to the south, east, north and west.

Sultan Ma'mun Al Rashid Perkasa Alam as a leader of Sultanate of Deli started the development of Masjid Al Mashun on 21 August 1906 (1 Rajab 1324 AH). The entire development was completed on 10 September 1909 (25 Sha'ban 1329 AH) and marked by the implementation of the first Friday prayers at the mosque. The overall development budget was one million guilders[citation needed]. The Sultan developed the Mosque according to his principle that it should be more important than his own grand palace, the Maimoon Palace. Construction of the mosque was financed by the Sultanate of Deli, the Deli Maatschappij, and Tjong A Fie, the wealthiest businessman in Medan at that time.

At first, the Mosque was designed by the Dutch architect Theodoor van Erp, who also designed The Maimoon Palace, but was then handed over to JA Tingdeman. Van Erp at that time was called to Java by the Dutch government to join in the process of restoring the Borobudur temple in Central Java. The construction required the import of different building materials such as: marble from Italy, Germany and China and the stained glass from the chandelier imported from France.

JA Tingdeman designed the mosque with an octagonal symmetrical layout style, combining elements from Morocco, Europe and the Middle East. The eight square floor plan produced a unique inner chamber, unlike most conventional mosques. A black, high vaulted roof porch is constructed in each of the four corners of the mosque, and complements the main dome on the roof of the main building of the mosque. Each is equipped with a main door and stairs between the courts of the main floor of the mosque is elevated, except building the porch on the side of the mihrab.

The mosque is divided into the main room, ablution, entry gates and towers. The main room, a place of prayer, does not share the same octagonal theme. On the opposite side is smaller, there is a 'porch' small porch attached to and protrudes out. The windows surrounding the veranda doors made of wood with glass-precious stained glass, remnants of the art nouveau period 1890-1914, combined with Islamic art. The entire ornamentation in the mosque either in walls, ceilings, pillars, arches and rich surfaces with decorative flowers and plants. in front of each porch stairs there. Then, earlier octagon, on the outside appear with four aisles on all four sides, which surround the main prayer hall.

The aisles have a row of bare windows shaped arches which stand on the beam. Both porch and arched windows of the building design reminiscent of Islamic kingdoms in Spain in the Middle Ages. While the dome of the mosque following the Turkish model, the shape of the octagonal broken. The main dome surrounded by four other domes on top of each porch, with a smaller size. Dome shape is reminiscent of the Grand Mosque of Banda Aceh. On the inside of the mosque, there are eight main pillar diameter of 0.60 m tall to support the main dome in the middle. The mihrab is made of marble with a pointed dome roof. This mosque gate flat-roofed square. While the ornate minaret blend between Egyptian, Iranian and Arabian.

Denominations in numerals are in lower right and left corners.

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