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100 Mark 1991, Germany

in Krause book Number: 41b
Years of issue: 01.08.1991
Edition: --
Signatures: Bundesbank Präsident: Prof. Helmut Schlesinger (01.08.1991-31.09.1993), Vizepräsident: Prof. Hans Tietmeyer (01.08.1991-30.09.1993)
Serie: Fourth Series
Specimen of: 01.08.1991
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 154 х 74
Printer: Bundesdruckerei GmbH, Berlin

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

100 Mark 1991

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Clara Schumann Portrait (the same as that on the banknote but in mirror image).

Avers:

100 Mark 1991

Clara Schumann Clara SchumannThe engraving on banknote is made after the portrait of Clara Josephine Wieck Schumann, made by unknown master in 1840 on ivory miniature. Now this portrait is in private collection.

Clara Schumann (née Clara Josephine Wieck; 13 September 1819 – 20 May 1896) was a German musician and composer, considered one of the most distinguished pianists of the Romantic era. She exerted her influence over a 61-year concert career, changing the format and repertoire of the piano recital and the tastes of the listening public. Her husband was the composer Robert Schumann. Together they encouraged Johannes Brahms. She was the first to perform publicly any work by Brahms. She later premiered some other pieces by Brahms, notably the Variations and Fugue on a Theme by Handel.

In an era when women, apart from singers, almost never performed in public or composed, Clara Schumann did both. She distinguished herself as the foremost interpreter of her husband Robert’s work, but she was also a primary force in reintroducing eighteenth-century keyboard music to the public. Unfortunately, her own compositions remained unknown until the second half of the twentieth century. Many are still unpublished and owned by private collectors, so we still cannot appreciate the full extent of her compositional achievements. (www.musicacademyonline.com)

On background are the buildings of old Leipzig, Clara Schumann's birthplace.

At the bottom, presumably, Schumann House in Leipzig, in the street Inselstraße 18. In this house, Robert and Clara Schumann were filming their first joint apartment after their wedding in 1840.

So far, I do not have the evidence that banknote depicts exactly this house. When I receive some proof of that then will write in more detail about the house.

Centered is stylized Lyre, as symbol of music at all.

The lyre (Greek: λύρα, lýra) is a string instrument known for its use in Greek classical antiquity and later periods. The lyre is similar in appearance to a small harp but with distinct differences. The word comes via Latin from the Greek; the earliest reference to the word is the Mycenaean Greek ru-ra-ta-e, meaning "lyrists" and written in the Linear B script. The lyres of Ur, excavated in ancient Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), date to 2500 BCE. The earliest picture of a lyre with seven strings appears in the famous sarcophagus of Hagia Triada (a Minoan settlement in Crete). The sarcophagus was used during the Mycenaean occupation of Crete (1400 BCE). The recitations of the Ancient Greeks were accompanied by lyre playing.

HintergrundmusterOn banknote's background are EURion constellations.

The EURion constellation (also known as Omron rings or doughnuts) is a pattern of symbols incorporated into a number of banknote designs worldwide since about 1996. It is added to help imaging software detect the presence of a banknote in a digital image. Such software can then block the user from reproducing banknotes to prevent counterfeiting using colour photocopiers. Research shows that the EURion constellation is used for colour photocopiers but probably not used in computer software. It has been reported that Adobe Photoshop will not allow editing of an image of a banknote, but this is believed due to a different, unknown digital watermark rather than the EURion constellation.

Lower, left, are the Braille symbols for visually impaired.

Denominations in numerals are lower and on right side, in words on right side (vertically).

Revers:

100 Mark 1991

Brandenburger Tor Brandenburger TorThe grand piano of Clara Schumann (Ein Konzertflügel), today is the property of Robert Schumann museum in Zwikau.

The grand piano made by André Stein (1776-1842) in Vienna is numbered 513 and was commissioned by Friedrich Wieck for his daughter Clara. An entry from 1828 in the young Clara’s diary reads: “On the 4th of March I received the cherry wood 6-octave grand piano which had been ordered for me from Mr Stein in Vienna (Archive, Robert Schumann House). On the 20th October 1828, the nine-year-old Clara Wieck played on the instrument at her first public performance in the Leipzig Gewandhaus (cloth hall). Father Wieck later sold the instrument to friends, the Focke family, whose great-great grandson made a gift of it to the Zwickau Schumann Museum in 1911. In 1995/96 it was expertly restored by Robert A. Brown (Arnsdorf near Salzburg). The Zwickau grand piano served as the model for the image on the reverse of the former 100 DM banknotes. (www.schumannzwickau.de)

Clara Schumann Clara SchumannOn background is the image of Hoch Conservatory in Frankfurt (Hoch’sche Konservatorium in Frankfurt) - last place of work of Clara Schumann.

Dr. Hoch’s Konservatorium - Musikakademie was founded in Frankfurt am Main on 22 September 1878. Through the generosity of Frankfurter Joseph Hoch, who bequeathed the Conservatory one million German gold marks in his testament, a school for music and the arts was established for all age groups. Instrumental to the foundation, prosperity and success of the Conservatory was its director Joachim Raff who did most of the work including setting the entire curriculum and hiring all its faculty. It has played an important role in the history of music in Frankfurt. Many famous musicians have taught there: in the late 19th century, with teachers like Clara Schumann on the faculty, the Conservatory achieved international renown. In the 1890s about 25% of the students were from other countries: 46 were from England and 23 from America.

In the 1920s, under director Bernhard Sekles, the Conservatory was far ahead of its time: Sekles initiated the world’s first Jazz Studies (directed by Mátyás Seiber) and in 1931 the Elementary Music Department.

Today Dr. Hoch's Conservatory offers instruction in the Music Education for Youth and Adults (ANE) program, the Elementary Music Department (Basisabteilung), and the Pre-College-Frankfurt (PCF) program, which provides preparation for future studies at a Hochschule or Conservatory. There are also Ballet, Early Music and New Music departments. The following qualifications are available: Diplom in Music and Diplomas in Music Pedagogy in all instruments, voice, music theory, composition, performance, and Elementary Music Pedagogy.

The German Federal Bank honored the Conservatory on the reverse side of the former 100 DM bill with a picture of the original Conservatory building, unfortunately bombed in World War II.

More to the left side is the seal of German Bundesbank - black eagle.

In lower right corner is vibrating tuning fork.

A tuning fork is an acoustic resonator in the form of a two-pronged fork with the prongs (tines) formed from a U-shaped bar of elastic metal (usually steel). It resonates at a specific constant pitch when set vibrating by striking it against a surface or with an object, and emits a pure musical tone after waiting a moment to allow some high overtones to die out. The pitch that a particular tuning fork generates depends on the length and mass of the two prongs. It is frequently used as a standard of pitch to tune musical instruments.

The tuning fork was invented in 1711 by British musician John Shore, Sergeant Trumpeter and Lutenist to the court.

HintergrundmusterOn background are the notes and treble clefs.

Denominations in numerals are lower and on left side, in words on left side (vertically) and in right top corner.

Comments:

The signatures on banknote belong to:

Helmut SchlesingerHelmut Schlesinger (04.09.1924).

Hans TietmeyerHans Tietmeyer (18 August 1931).

Reinhold GerstetterDesigner - Reinhold Gerstetter.

Reinhold Gerstetter (October 18, 1945 in Leonberg in Baden-Württemberg) is a German graphic artist and designer. The most famous work in Germany is the last series of DM banknotes, which he designed, as well as the revision of the second Euro Series, the so-called "Euro-Series".

Gerstetter studied graphic design at the State Academy of Fine Arts in Stuttgart and later worked in advertising in London, Berlin and Haifa. From 1979 to 2002 he worked for the Bundesdruckerei. There he designed as a chief designer behördliches graphic design, stamps and banknotes (including for Israel, Bolivia and Peru). 1987 Gerst Etters design was chosen as the basis for the fourth and final series of banknotes of the German mark, which was from 1990 to early 2002 in circulation. A short time later, he also won the design competition of the Banco de España, which published four banknote values ​​from 1992, based on Gerst Etters designs. Although his designs submitted for the first series of banknotes of the common currency were not selected euro by the jury for the implementation, however, he was entrusted with the revision of the second series of euro banknotes that came into circulation as of May 2013.

His daughter, Avitall, is Germany's first female Jewish cantor.

Fourth Series of DM.

On March 19, 1981, the members of the Central Bank Council of the Deutsche Bundesbank decided to issue a new banknote series. She had become necessary due to technological progress, by the falsification of the old notes had become ever easier. Also a new series for the automatic payment transactions would be more appropriate. It took almost ten years, until the first two banknote values ​​were put into circulation on 1 October 1990 levels. This was around the 100- and 200-mark note. The latter denomination was introduced in this series of banknotes.

When designing the bank notes and the selection of the design elements were a lot of decisions to make. As early as the preliminary to the new series portraits were determined as the main subject. It should "be chosen brilliant portraits of personalities of German history in the fields of art, literature, music, economics, science and technology". In addition, the rear in conjunction should be about the person depicted on the front. Further, the primary colors of the note values ​​should remain unchanged and the word banknote stand on every bill in Gothic script.

People Picker.

A committee, consisting of historians Karl Otmar von Aretin, Knut Borchardt and Horst Fuhrmann, was commissioned to define the persons who should appear on the banknotes. The choice was between about 70 to 80 people. Here to "Top Artists" (z. B. Goethe, Schiller, Dürer) has been omitted. Likewise, retired people from whose expellees affiliation was unclear or a provocation in creed or political manner could mean (for example, Martin Luther, Karl Marx) or who had rendered her work mainly abroad, such as Jacques Offenbach.

When selecting the people should pay attention to balance in terms of gender, religion, national origin and work area. It should, if possible, three, but at least be represented two female characters in the series. However, the selection was very limited to female personalities. The aim was to show women who have created an independent work and not in the shade close to them were men (Charlotte von Stein, Charlotte von Kalb). However, such women were very rare until the XIX century. Therefore, the Panel chose to begin with the female figures, so not limitations on the field of activity, origin or confession had to be considered.

One of the requirements for the design was that the people viewed by the observer, the left should look towards banknote center. This meant that the provided portraits for five, ten, twenty, fifty and two hundred-Mark banknotes had to be mirrored. As with the Brothers Grimm two people should be ready to give them the largest banknote was reserved because of the large space requirement. Otherwise, men and women should alternate. The rest of the allocation of person and note value, however, was random and does not constitute a rating of persons.

Actually, Maria Sibylla Merian was earmarked for the 100- and Clara Schumann for the 500-mark note. However, only an artistically inferior etching by Johann Rudolf Schellenberg was for the portrait of Maria Sibylla Merian available, as in the original template doubts about the authenticity arose. Therefore, the Bundesbank held a design competition in order to get a high-quality master of this etching, which was the basis for the portrait on the bill later. Since the 100-DM-note should appear as one of the first, the people were replaced because of these difficulties.

Selection of the winning design.

Bundesdruckerei (represented by Rudolf Gerhardt, who had already designed the bench marks (BBK-II) for West Berlin), Ernst: For the design competition, which ran from 1 January to 30 June 1987, four graphic designers were by the Bundesbank in charge disciples, Johann Müller and Adrian Arthur Senger. According to the judgment of an expert commission consisting of historians, designers and graphic designers as well as a sociologist, corresponded to only one series to the high expectations. However, this reminded too much of the Swiss franc, so that she did not come into question. Thus, it would have been necessary actually a new design competition, which would have delayed the project by at least one year. But since Bundesdruckerei did submit two drafts, which was not accepted by the Bundesbank, was the draft by the then chief graphic designer of Bundesdruckerei, Reinhold Gerstetter, yet unseen in custody of the Bundesbank. After review by the Panel of this design was selected eventually as a basis for the new banknote series. The experts wrote: "The art expert panel is unanimously of the view that the here [...] compiled draft properties largely meet the requirements [...]. The art expert panel may recommend in this sense, the Deutsche Bundesbank, to make the present proposals for the basis of a new banknote series."

Configuration of the front sides.

The to be seen on the front towns pictures were an idea Gerst Etters. In his designs were to be seen in some cases striking modern building of the respective cities. However, the draft of the city of Frankfurt led to the decision to represent only historical buildings. The reason given was that the office towers of Deutsche Bank dominated the design and the Bundesbank should not be suspected to advertise for a private company.

In 1988, it was now necessary to select the appropriate city for each person. The design of the graphic looked for Paul Ehrlich Bad Homburg, his place of death, before. However, his work was held in Berlin and Frankfurt mostly. Frankfurt had Gerstetter however provided for Clara Schumann, who spent her final years there. After deciding on the introduction of the 5-DM-bill with the portrait of Bettina von Arnim was soon clear map to this the city of Berlin. Because each city should appear on the banknotes only once, only came for Paul Ehrlich thus Frankfurt in question. For Clara Schumann, the city of Leipzig was chosen because Leipzig was not just her birth, but because they also had their first successes there later.

Due to the events in the years 1989/1990, the decision for Leipzig proved a stroke of luck; because the banknote series was originally intended only for West Germany and West Berlin. But as the new federal states were represented with a city which also still has a special symbolic meaning: Here is the first Monday demonstrations took place that led to the dissolution of the GDR and the reunification of Germany.

Design of backs.

Reinhold Gerstetter looked for the back of the 1000-Mark certificate as the main subject is a figure from the fairy tale The Star Money before. However, the Brothers Grimm should, despite their extensive collection of fairy tales, can not be reduced to the fairy tale, as they have rendered outstanding services to the issuing of the German dictionary much about the German language. Thus, the dictionary was the main motif, and the Sterntaler "wandered" into the White Field.

Also in the design of the back was done with great attention to detail. So, even the background pattern a reference to the person who is pictured on the front. A penalty for the forgery of bank notes was no longer available in the fourth series.