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100 Mark 1991, Germany

in Krause book Number: 41b
Years of issue: 01.08.1991
Edition: --
Signatures: Bundesbank Präsident: Prof. Helmut Schlesinger (01.08.1991-31.09.1993), Vizepräsident: Prof. Hans Tietmeyer (01.08.1991-30.09.1993)
Serie: Fourth Series
Specimen of: 01.08.1991
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 154 х 74
Printer: Bundesdruckerei GmbH, Berlin

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

100 Mark 1991

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Clara Schumann Portrait (the same as that on the banknote but in mirror image).

Avers:

100 Mark 1991

Clara Schumann Clara Schumann

The engraving on banknote is made after the portrait of Clara Josephine Wieck Schumann, made by unknown master in 1840 on ivory miniature. Now this portrait is in private collection.

Clara Schumann (née Clara Josephine Wieck; 13 September 1819 – 20 May 1896) was a German musician and composer, considered one of the most distinguished pianists of the Romantic era. She exerted her influence over a 61-year concert career, changing the format and repertoire of the piano recital and the tastes of the listening public. Her husband was the composer Robert Schumann. Together they encouraged Johannes Brahms. She was the first to perform publicly any work by Brahms. She later premiered some other pieces by Brahms, notably the Variations and Fugue on a Theme by Handel.

In an era when women, apart from singers, almost never performed in public or composed, Clara Schumann did both. She distinguished herself as the foremost interpreter of her husband Robert’s work, but she was also a primary force in reintroducing eighteenth-century keyboard music to the public. Unfortunately, her own compositions remained unknown until the second half of the twentieth century. Many are still unpublished and owned by private collectors, so we still cannot appreciate the full extent of her compositional achievements. (www.musicacademyonline.com)

On background are the buildings of old Leipzig, Clara Schumann's birthplace.

Among them are:

Thomaskirche

Top, right is St. Thomas Church.

St. Thomas Church (German: Thomaskirche) is a Lutheran church in Leipzig, Germany. It is associated with several well-known composers such as Richard Wagner and Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, but mostly with Johann Sebastian Bach who worked here as a Kapellmeister (music director) from 1723 until his death in 1750. Today, the church also holds his remains. Martin Luther preached here in 1539.

Although rebuilt over the centuries and damaged by Allied incendiary bombs in 1943, the church today mainly retains the character of a late-Gothic hall church. The Thomanerchor, the choir of the Thomaskirche, likely founded in 1212, remains a well-known boys' choir.

There has been a church at the current site of the Thomaskirche at least since the 12th century. Foundations of a Romanesque building have been discovered in the choir and crossing of the current church.

Between 1212 and 1222 the earlier structure became the church of the new St. Thomas Monastery (Stift) of the Augustinian order founded by Markgraf Dietrich von Meissen. This monastery later became the core of the University of Leipzig (founded in 1409).

In 1217, The Minnesinger, or troubadour (see Minnesang), Heinrich von Morungen bequeathed to the church a relic of St. Thomas as he entered the order of canons after a trip to India.

In 1355, the Romanesque choir was changed to Gothic style. Following an inflow of wealth into Leipzig from the discovery of silver in the Erzgebirge, the Romanesque nave was demolished and replaced in 1482-96 by the current late-Gothic hall church.

The current building was consecrated by Thilo of Trotha, the Bishop of Merseburg, on 10 April 1496. The reformer Martin Luther preached here on Pentecost Sunday in 1539. The monastic buildings were demolished in 1541 following the monastery's dissolution.

The current church tower was first built in 1537 and rebuilt in 1702. Chapels added in the 17th century and an ante-building along the northern front of the nave with two stairways were removed at the end of the XIX century.

The composer Johann Sebastian Bach was choir director of music at St. Thomas Church from 1723 until his death in 1750 and taught at its affiliated school. A statue of Johann Sebastian Bach by the Leipzig sculptor Carl Seffner that stands next to the church was dedicated in 1908.

On 12 May 1789, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart played the organ here. In 1806, the church served as a munitions depot for the French army. During the Battle of Leipzig, the Thomaskirche was used as a military hospital.

Richard Wagner was baptized here on 16 August 1813. In 1828, he studied piano and counterpoint with the then Thomaskantor, Christian Th. Weinlig.

Most of the Baroque internal trappings of the church known to Bach were removed in a Gothic revival renovation of 1884-9. Also from this period date the pulpit and the main portal in the west facade.

On 4 December 1943, the tower was damaged in an Allied bombing raid on Leipzig, requiring repair. The authorities demolished the Johanneskirche, also damaged by bombs in 1943, in 1949 and the remains of Johann Sebastian Bach were moved from there to the Thomaskirche in 1950.

In the 20th century, sulfur emitted from nearby coal mines, and other pollutants in the atmospheric air caused the deterioration of exterior stonework and statuary, and even of interior Gothic paintings. In addition, the roof structure suffered from damage due to insects and moisture. For these reasons, the church was listed in the 2000 World Monuments Watch by the World Monuments Fund. Repairs were swiftly undertaken with financial support from the Fund and from American Express.

Repairs on the church in 1961 to 1964 also attempted to emphasize the Gothic hall church character of the building. Another renovation followed in 1991.

From 1993 to 2014, a 15th-century Gothic altar (originally in the Paulinerkirche, the church of the University of Leipzig, destroyed in 1968 by the Communist authorities) was located in the Thomaskirche. It was moved to the new St. Pauli church (2014) and replaced in 2016 with a Gothic-revival altar by Constantin Lipsius made in 1888, which had been removed in 1964.

A statue of Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, who lived in Leipzig from 1835 until his death in 1847, was dedicated on 18 October 2008, when it was re-erected opposite the St. Thomas Church on the occasion of the year of his 200th birthday. The 6-meter (20 ft.) statue depicts the former Gewandhaus Orchestra director and composer in bronze. Celebratory speeches were given by Kurt Masur, also a former Gewandhaus Orchestra director, and Burkhard Jung, mayor of Leipzig. The original statue designed by Werner Stein was first dedicated on 26 May 1892. It had been located on the east side of the Gewandhaus until 9 November 1936, when it was taken down by the Nazis because of the composer’s Jewish background.

The churches measures 76 meters in length, of which the nave accounts for 50 meters. The nave is 25 meters wide and its walls reach a maximum height of 18 meters. The church's roof is unusually steep with a roof pitch of 63 degrees. It rises to a crown that is 45 meters high. The tower is 68 meters in height.

Marktplatz Marktplatz

In the second row, from above, is the facade of the old town hall building and also, below, the facades of houses on the market square of Leipzig.

Market Square, and from 1950 to 1954 - Peace Square, is a rectangle about the size of a hectare in the center of Leipzig. This area is considered the center of the city. The first market square of the Slavic settlement Lipsk was located north at the intersection of the Royal Road (Via Regia) and the Imperial Road (Via Imperii) in the area of ​​today's Richard Wagner Square (German: Richard-Wagner-Platz).

After the inclusion of Leipzig in the German Empire, the square settled in its present place and became the center of the city’s public life. Until 1500, Marktplatz was the culmination of a total of twelve knightly games. In the 16th century, the first burgher houses were built.

The eastern side of the market square is bordered by the arcades of the Old Town Hall from the time of 1556. This is the oldest surviving building on the square. Historic buildings on the north side of Marktplatz were rebuilt after the devastation of World War II, including Alte Vaage.

Between 1925 and 2005 Under the square was an underground exhibition hall. After its demolition, the stop of the city tunnel was rebuilt at this place. This tunnel was officially opened on December 14, 2013, and its regular operation began on December 15, 2013.

Since 1581, the Golden Fountain, which was demolished in 1826, has been located in the northeast corner of the market square. Since 1888, a victory monument was designed in the northern half of the square, designed according to the sketches of Rudolf Siemering (German Rudolf Siemering) and reminded of the German-French war of 1870-1871. By decision of the Social Democratic City Council of Deputies, the monument was demolished on December 12, 1946. (www.hobbysalon.ru .rus)

Marktplatz

Lower of the old town hall is the new town hall.

The New Town Hall is a city government building in the German city of Leipzig. Built on the site of the city castle (fortress) Pleisenburg (German: Pleißenburg) demolished in 1897, it is located in the south-eastern part of the inner city, opposite the building of the new Catholic Church and the Federal Administrative Court.

During the industrialization of the 19th century, Leipzig quickly turned into one of the largest cities in the east of Germany, and, starting in the 1870s, plans appeared for moving the city government from the medieval Old Town Hall on Market Square to a new spacious building at the appropriate time. After lengthy discussions, the old city castle was chosen as the construction site, which was specially bought for this purpose in 1895 from the Saxon state and subsequently dismantled. At the same time, one of the main conditions of the project competition was the preservation of the main tower of the castle, as the most recognizable dominant of the city panorama. The first prize of an anonymous pan-German competition held in 1897 was received by the Leipzig city chief architect Hugo Licht (Hugo Licht, 1841-1923), whose design motto was lat. ARX ​​NOVA SURGIT (May a new castle be erected!); The sculptural design was entrusted to the famous sculptor and graphic artist Georg Vrba (Georg Wrba, 1872-1939).

The official ceremony of starting the construction of the New Town Hall took place on October 19, 1899, and after almost 6 years, on October 7, 1905, the building was solemnly consecrated in the presence of the Saxon king. In 1912, the New Town Hall was expanded: the so-called City House (German Stadthaus) was opened across the street, containing more than 300 additional administrative premises and connected to the main complex by a covered two-story passage.

The new town hall was built in an eclectic style fashionable for the late XIX - early XX centuries, and (together with the city house) covers an area of ​​almost 10,000 m², thus being one of the largest city administrative buildings in the world. On the other hand, the main tower of the town hall, erected on the foundations of the old castle tower, and having a height of 114.7 meters, is considered the highest town hall tower in Germany. The southwestern corner facade of the New Town Hall is decorated, among other things, with figures symbolizing the craft, justice, typography, science and music typical of Leipzig; above them stands a huge sculpture of a lion, also present on the city coat of arms of Leipzig, and an inscription-dedication of lat. PUBLICO CONSILIO PUBLICAE SALUTI, that is, "The Government of the city and the public good." Around the dial of the clock located on the southern facade is the Latin inscription MORS CERTA, HORA INCERTA, that is, "Death is inevitable, the hour (s) is unknown." Facing north (Castle Square), the facade is more modest and, rather, functional, being decorated with a sculptural image of the goddess of justice and a fountain erected in 1908 at the expense of citizens with various figures from German fairy tales and portrait medallions of former mayors Bruno Trøndlin and Otto Georgi.

Gewandhaus

Lower of New Town Hall is Gewandhaus, built in 1884.

Gewandhaus is a city concert hall (philharmonic society) in the German city of Leipzig in the west of Saxony. Since 1781, the home stage of the eponymous orchestra, the Gewandhaus choir and a number of chamber music ensembles.

The modern Gewandhaus building, located on Augustus Square (German: Augustusplatz) and opened in 1981, is the third in a row, and is often called the new Gewandhouse.

First Gewandhouse.

Initially, Gewandhaus was located in the historical center of the city in the modern Copper Lane (German Kupfergasse), and was built in 1498 as a Zeichhaus, in the form of the Latin letter L. After later the second floor of the building was used by cloth makers, that is, cloth dealers, it got its famous name Gewandhaus (= house of fabrics).

Gewandhaus' musical history is linked to the Großes Concert Music Society, founded in 1743 and giving public concerts in the large hall of the Drey Schwanen Hotel. Since over time, concerts became an important part of urban life, the question arose soon of acquiring their own premises. In 1781, the orchestra moved to Gewandhaus, where on the third floor the city architect Johann Carl Friedrich Dauthe (German: Johann Carl Friedrich Dauthe, 1746-1816) in 1780-1781 was equipped with one of the first specialized concert halls in Europe, able to accommodate up to 500 people and opened on November 25, 1781. In May 1789, Mozart performed here.

The ceiling of the concert hall stretched along the longitudinal axis was decorated with paintings by Adam Friedrich Ezer, lost during the restoration of 1833, which caused a big scandal at one time. The new decoration of the hall was entrusted to the Dresden architect and artist Voldemar Hermann (German: Hans Woldemar Hermann, 1807-1878). Repeated work followed in 1842, when the number of seats was increased to a thousand, and in 1872.

In the 19th century, in Gewandhaus, including due to its unique acoustics that quickly gained European popularity, the premieres of works by Beethoven, Schubert, Schumann, Mendelssohn Bartholdy, Wagner and Brahms, which currently belong to the permanent repertoire of almost any orchestra, took place. One of the most influential bandmasters of this period was Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdi, who reorganized the orchestra on a professional basis.

Due to the rapid population growth in the second half of the 19th century, which required updating the urban infrastructure, in 1884, south-west of the historical center, the so-called Music Quarter (German Musikviertel) opened a new concert hall (German Neues Concerthaus), in in connection with which the medieval building of Gewandhaus began to be called the Old Gewandhouse respectively, continuing to be periodically used for concerts until 1886.

In 1893-1896, the old Gewandhaus was partially demolished, with the few remaining fragments of the building integrated into the City Trade House (German Städtisches Kaufhaus) - probably the world's first pavilion for the exhibition of industrial products, the success of which was a decisive impetus for the reform of Leipzig trade fairs.

Second Gewandhouse.

The so-called second Gewandhaus, built in 1882-1884 by Heino Schmiden according to the project of Martin Gropius and from the legacy of Franz Dominic Grassi (German: Franz Dominic Grassi, 1801-1880), was opened on December 11, 1884. The sculptural decoration of the building was entrusted to Otto Lessing. The large hall was designed for 1700 spectators, the chamber music hall - for 650 people.

Since 1892, in front of the main entrance there was a sculptural image of Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, due to the Jewish origin of the composer demolished in 1936 after the rise of the National Socialists.

It is believed that the new Leipzig concert hall has become one of the prototypes for the Boston Symphony Hall, built in 1900.

The building of the second Gewandhaus, seriously damaged during air raids during the Second World War, despite the protests of the townspeople, was demolished on March 29, 1968. Currently, this place is the Center for the Humanities of the University of Leipzig, built in 2002.

Due to the destruction of the main venue in the postwar years, the concerts of the Gewandhaus Orchestra were held at the Capitol Cinema (1944-1945) and then at the Congress Hall (1946-1981).

Schumann Haus

At the bottom, on left side, presumably, Schumann House in Leipzig, on Inselstraße 18. In this house, Robert and Clara Schumann were filming their first joint apartment after their wedding in 1840.

So far, I do not have the evidence that banknote depicts exactly this house. When I receive some proof of that then will write in more detail about the house.

Centered is stylized Lyre, as symbol of music at all.

The lyre (Greek: λύρα, lýra) is a string instrument known for its use in Greek classical antiquity and later periods. The lyre is similar in appearance to a small harp but with distinct differences. The word comes via Latin from the Greek; the earliest reference to the word is the Mycenaean Greek ru-ra-ta-e, meaning "lyrists" and written in the Linear B script. The lyres of Ur, excavated in ancient Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), date to 2500 BCE. The earliest picture of a lyre with seven strings appears in the famous sarcophagus of Hagia Triada (a Minoan settlement in Crete). The sarcophagus was used during the Mycenaean occupation of Crete (1400 BCE). The recitations of the Ancient Greeks were accompanied by lyre playing.

Hintergrundmuster

On banknote's background are EURion constellations.

The EURion constellation (also known as Omron rings or doughnuts) is a pattern of symbols incorporated into a number of banknote designs worldwide since about 1996. It is added to help imaging software detect the presence of a banknote in a digital image. Such software can then block the user from reproducing banknotes to prevent counterfeiting using colour photocopiers. Research shows that the EURion constellation is used for colour photocopiers but probably not used in computer software. It has been reported that Adobe Photoshop will not allow editing of an image of a banknote, but this is believed due to a different, unknown digital watermark rather than the EURion constellation.

Lower, left, are the Braille symbols for visually impaired.

Denominations in numerals are lower and on right side, in words on right side (vertically).

Revers:

100 Mark 1991

Brandenburger Tor Brandenburger Tor

The grand piano of Clara Schumann (Ein Konzertflügel), today is the property of Robert Schumann museum in Zwikau.

The grand piano made by André Stein (1776-1842) in Vienna is numbered 513 and was commissioned by Friedrich Wieck for his daughter Clara. An entry from 1828 in the young Clara’s diary reads: “On the 4th of March I received the cherry wood 6-octave grand piano which had been ordered for me from Mr Stein in Vienna (Archive, Robert Schumann House). On the 20th October 1828, the nine-year-old Clara Wieck played on the instrument at her first public performance in the Leipzig Gewandhaus (cloth hall). Father Wieck later sold the instrument to friends, the Focke family, whose great-great grandson made a gift of it to the Zwickau Schumann Museum in 1911. In 1995/96 it was expertly restored by Robert A. Brown (Arnsdorf near Salzburg). The Zwickau grand piano served as the model for the image on the reverse of the former 100 DM banknotes. (www.schumannzwickau.de)

Clara Schumann Clara Schumann

On background is the image of Hoch Conservatory in Frankfurt (Hoch’sche Konservatorium in Frankfurt) - last place of work of Clara Schumann.

Dr. Hoch’s Konservatorium - Musikakademie was founded in Frankfurt am Main on 22 September 1878. Through the generosity of Frankfurter Joseph Hoch, who bequeathed the Conservatory one million German gold marks in his testament, a school for music and the arts was established for all age groups. Instrumental to the foundation, prosperity and success of the Conservatory was its director Joachim Raff who did most of the work including setting the entire curriculum and hiring all its faculty. It has played an important role in the history of music in Frankfurt. Many famous musicians have taught there: in the late 19th century, with teachers like Clara Schumann on the faculty, the Conservatory achieved international renown. In the 1890s about 25% of the students were from other countries: 46 were from England and 23 from America.

In the 1920s, under director Bernhard Sekles, the Conservatory was far ahead of its time: Sekles initiated the world’s first Jazz Studies (directed by Mátyás Seiber) and in 1931 the Elementary Music Department.

Today Dr. Hoch's Conservatory offers instruction in the Music Education for Youth and Adults (ANE) program, the Elementary Music Department (Basisabteilung), and the Pre-College-Frankfurt (PCF) program, which provides preparation for future studies at a Hochschule or Conservatory. There are also Ballet, Early Music and New Music departments. The following qualifications are available: Diplom in Music and Diplomas in Music Pedagogy in all instruments, voice, music theory, composition, performance, and Elementary Music Pedagogy.

The German Federal Bank honored the Conservatory on the reverse side of the former 100 DM bill with a picture of the original Conservatory building, unfortunately bombed in World War II.

More to the left side is the seal of German Bundesbank - black eagle.

In lower right corner is vibrating tuning fork.

A tuning fork is an acoustic resonator in the form of a two-pronged fork with the prongs (tines) formed from a U-shaped bar of elastic metal (usually steel). It resonates at a specific constant pitch when set vibrating by striking it against a surface or with an object, and emits a pure musical tone after waiting a moment to allow some high overtones to die out. The pitch that a particular tuning fork generates depends on the length and mass of the two prongs. It is frequently used as a standard of pitch to tune musical instruments.

The tuning fork was invented in 1711 by British musician John Shore, Sergeant Trumpeter and Lutenist to the court.

Hintergrundmuster

On background are the notes and treble clefs.

Denominations in numerals are lower and on left side, in words on left side (vertically) and in right top corner.

Comments:

The signatures on banknote belong to:

Helmut Schlesinger

Helmut Schlesinger (04.09.1924).

Hans Tietmeyer

Hans Tietmeyer (18 August 1931).

Reinhold Gerstetter

Designer - Reinhold Gerstetter.

Reinhold Gerstetter (October 18, 1945 in Leonberg in Baden-Württemberg) is a German graphic artist and designer. The most famous work in Germany is the last series of DM banknotes, which he designed, as well as the revision of the second Euro Series, the so-called "Euro-Series".

Gerstetter studied graphic design at the State Academy of Fine Arts in Stuttgart and later worked in advertising in London, Berlin and Haifa. From 1979 to 2002 he worked for the Bundesdruckerei. There he designed as a chief designer behördliches graphic design, stamps and banknotes (including for Israel, Bolivia and Peru). 1987 Gerst Etters design was chosen as the basis for the fourth and final series of banknotes of the German mark, which was from 1990 to early 2002 in circulation. A short time later, he also won the design competition of the Banco de España, which published four banknote values ​​from 1992, based on Gerst Etters designs. Although his designs submitted for the first series of banknotes of the common currency were not selected euro by the jury for the implementation, however, he was entrusted with the revision of the second series of euro banknotes that came into circulation as of May 2013.

His daughter, Avitall, is Germany's first female Jewish cantor.

Fourth Series of DM.

On March 19, 1981, the members of the Central Bank Council of the Deutsche Bundesbank decided to issue a new banknote series. She had become necessary due to technological progress, by the falsification of the old notes had become ever easier. Also a new series for the automatic payment transactions would be more appropriate. It took almost ten years, until the first two banknote values ​​were put into circulation on 1 October 1990 levels. This was around the 100- and 200-mark note. The latter denomination was introduced in this series of banknotes.

When designing the bank notes and the selection of the design elements were a lot of decisions to make. As early as the preliminary to the new series portraits were determined as the main subject. It should "be chosen brilliant portraits of personalities of German history in the fields of art, literature, music, economics, science and technology". In addition, the rear in conjunction should be about the person depicted on the front. Further, the primary colors of the note values ​​should remain unchanged and the word banknote stand on every bill in Gothic script.

People Picker.

A committee, consisting of historians Karl Otmar von Aretin, Knut Borchardt and Horst Fuhrmann, was commissioned to define the persons who should appear on the banknotes. The choice was between about 70 to 80 people. Here to "Top Artists" (z. B. Goethe, Schiller, Dürer) has been omitted. Likewise, retired people from whose expellees affiliation was unclear or a provocation in creed or political manner could mean (for example, Martin Luther, Karl Marx) or who had rendered her work mainly abroad, such as Jacques Offenbach.

When selecting the people should pay attention to balance in terms of gender, religion, national origin and work area. It should, if possible, three, but at least be represented two female characters in the series. However, the selection was very limited to female personalities. The aim was to show women who have created an independent work and not in the shade close to them were men (Charlotte von Stein, Charlotte von Kalb). However, such women were very rare until the XIX century. Therefore, the Panel chose to begin with the female figures, so not limitations on the field of activity, origin or confession had to be considered.

One of the requirements for the design was that the people viewed by the observer, the left should look towards banknote center. This meant that the provided portraits for five, ten, twenty, fifty and two hundred-Mark banknotes had to be mirrored. As with the Brothers Grimm two people should be ready to give them the largest banknote was reserved because of the large space requirement. Otherwise, men and women should alternate. The rest of the allocation of person and note value, however, was random and does not constitute a rating of persons.

Actually, Maria Sibylla Merian was earmarked for the 100- and Clara Schumann for the 500-mark note. However, only an artistically inferior etching by Johann Rudolf Schellenberg was for the portrait of Maria Sibylla Merian available, as in the original template doubts about the authenticity arose. Therefore, the Bundesbank held a design competition in order to get a high-quality master of this etching, which was the basis for the portrait on the bill later. Since the 100-DM-note should appear as one of the first, the people were replaced because of these difficulties.

Selection of the winning design.

Bundesdruckerei (represented by Rudolf Gerhardt, who had already designed the bench marks (BBK-II) for West Berlin), Ernst: For the design competition, which ran from 1 January to 30 June 1987, four graphic designers were by the Bundesbank in charge disciples, Johann Müller and Adrian Arthur Senger. According to the judgment of an expert commission consisting of historians, designers and graphic designers as well as a sociologist, corresponded to only one series to the high expectations. However, this reminded too much of the Swiss franc, so that she did not come into question. Thus, it would have been necessary actually a new design competition, which would have delayed the project by at least one year. But since Bundesdruckerei did submit two drafts, which was not accepted by the Bundesbank, was the draft by the then chief graphic designer of Bundesdruckerei, Reinhold Gerstetter, yet unseen in custody of the Bundesbank. After review by the Panel of this design was selected eventually as a basis for the new banknote series. The experts wrote: "The art expert panel is unanimously of the view that the here [...] compiled draft properties largely meet the requirements [...]. The art expert panel may recommend in this sense, the Deutsche Bundesbank, to make the present proposals for the basis of a new banknote series."

Configuration of the front sides.

The to be seen on the front towns pictures were an idea Gerst Etters. In his designs were to be seen in some cases striking modern building of the respective cities. However, the draft of the city of Frankfurt led to the decision to represent only historical buildings. The reason given was that the office towers of Deutsche Bank dominated the design and the Bundesbank should not be suspected to advertise for a private company.

In 1988, it was now necessary to select the appropriate city for each person. The design of the graphic looked for Paul Ehrlich Bad Homburg, his place of death, before. However, his work was held in Berlin and Frankfurt mostly. Frankfurt had Gerstetter however provided for Clara Schumann, who spent her final years there. After deciding on the introduction of the 5-DM-bill with the portrait of Bettina von Arnim was soon clear map to this the city of Berlin. Because each city should appear on the banknotes only once, only came for Paul Ehrlich thus Frankfurt in question. For Clara Schumann, the city of Leipzig was chosen because Leipzig was not just her birth, but because they also had their first successes there later.

Due to the events in the years 1989/1990, the decision for Leipzig proved a stroke of luck; because the banknote series was originally intended only for West Germany and West Berlin. But as the new federal states were represented with a city which also still has a special symbolic meaning: Here is the first Monday demonstrations took place that led to the dissolution of the GDR and the reunification of Germany.

Design of backs.

Reinhold Gerstetter looked for the back of the 1000-Mark certificate as the main subject is a figure from the fairy tale The Star Money before. However, the Brothers Grimm should, despite their extensive collection of fairy tales, can not be reduced to the fairy tale, as they have rendered outstanding services to the issuing of the German dictionary much about the German language. Thus, the dictionary was the main motif, and the Sterntaler "wandered" into the White Field.

Also in the design of the back was done with great attention to detail. So, even the background pattern a reference to the person who is pictured on the front. A penalty for the forgery of bank notes was no longer available in the fourth series.