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100 Mark 1975, East Germany

in Krause book Number: 31а
Years of issue: 1975
Edition: --
Signatures: no signature
Serie: Staatsbank der DDR
Specimen of: 1971
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 145 х 62
Printer: VEB Wertpapierdruckerei der DDR, Leipzig

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100 Mark 1975

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Karl Marx.

Avers:

100 Mark 1975

Karl MarxThe engraving on banknote is made after the photo of Karl Marx. The photo made on 24 August 1875 by English photographer John Jabez Edwin Mayall.

Karl Marx (5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher, economist, sociologist, journalist and revolutionary socialist. Born in Prussia (now Rhineland-Palatinate), he later became stateless and spent much of his life in London. Marx's work in economics laid the basis for much of the current understanding of labour and its relation to capital, and subsequent economic thought. He published numerous books during his lifetime, the most notable being "The Communist Manifesto" (1848) and "Das Kapital" (1867-1894).

Born into a wealthy middle-class family in Trier in the Prussian Rhineland, Marx studied at the universities of Bonn and Berlin where he became interested in the philosophical ideas of the Young Hegelians. After his studies he wrote for the "Rheinische Zeitung", a radical newspaper in Cologne, and began to work out the theory of the materialist conception of history. He moved to Paris in 1843, where he began writing for other radical newspapers and met Friedrich Engels, who would become his lifelong friend and collaborator. In 1849 he was exiled and moved to London together with his wife and children, where he continued writing and formulating his theories about social and economic activity. He also campaigned for socialism and became a significant figure in the International Workingmen's Association.

Marx's theories about society, economics and politics - the collective understanding of which is known as Marxism - hold that human societies progress through class struggle: a conflict between an ownership class that controls production and a dispossessed labouring class that provides the labour for production. States, Marx believed, were run on behalf of the ruling class and in their interest while representing it as the common interest of all; and he predicted that, like previous socioeconomic systems, capitalism produced internal tensions which would lead to its self-destruction and replacement by a new system: socialism. He argued that class antagonisms under capitalism between the bourgeoisie and proletariat would eventuate in the working class' conquest of political power and eventually establish a classless society, communism, a society governed by a free association of producers. Marx actively fought for its implementation, arguing that the working class should carry out organised revolutionary action to topple capitalism and bring about socio-economic change.

Both lauded and criticized, Marx has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history. Many intellectuals, labour unions and political parties worldwide have been influenced by Marx's ideas, with many variations on his groundwork. Marx is typically cited, with Émile Durkheim and Max Weber, as one of the three principal architects of modern social science.

John Jabez Edwin MayallJohn Jabez Edwin Paisley Mayall (1813 in Oldham, Lancashire – 1901) was an English photographer who in 1860 took the first carte-de-visite photographs of Queen Victoria.

Born on 17 September 1813, in Manchester, the county of Lancashire, his birth name was registered as Jabez Meal. He was the son of John and Elizabeth Meal. His father was a manufacturing chemist believed to have specialized in the production of dyes for the linen industry.

By 1817 John Meal and his family were living at Lingards, near Huddersfield in the cloth manufacturing region of West Yorkshire. In Baine's Directory of 1822, Mayall's father, John Meal, is listed as a dyer in Linthwaite.

Coat of arms DDRThe coat of arms of GDR is on top, more to left side.

The national emblem of the German Democratic Republic featured a hammer and a compass, surrounded by a ring of rye. It was an example of what has been called "socialist heraldry".

The hammer represented the workers in the factories. The compass represented the intelligentsia, and the ring of rye the farmers. The first designs included only the hammer and ring of rye, as an expression of the GDR as a communist "Workers' and Farmers' state" ("Arbeiter- und Bauernstaat"). Surrounded by a wreath, the national emblem also acted as the emblem for the East German National People's Army, and when surrounded by a twelve pointed white star, for the People's Police.

When the federated states in East Germany were abolished and replaced by Bezirke, making the GDR into a unitary state, the national emblem came to be used by the regions too. The East Berlin government did not want regional symbols to be used, since they could stir up regional patriotism and movements for independence.

The emblem was adopted as the GDR's national emblem by a law of 26 September 1955, and added to the national flag by a law of 1 October 1959.

The display of the national emblem was for some years regarded as unconstitutional in West Germany and West Berlin and was prevented by the police. Only in 1969 did the West German government of Willy Brandt reverse this policy in what was known as "Ostpolitik".

Denominations in numerals are in lower corners, in words centered.

Revers:

100 Mark 1975

Unter den LindenView on the center of Berlin, namely the street Unter den Linden "Under the linden trees".

It is a boulevard in the Mitte district of Berlin, the capital of Germany. It is named after its linden (basswood in American English, lime in British English) trees that line the grassed pedestrian mall between two carriageways.

In the photo are recognized:

KronprinzenpalaisOn banknote, right side, foreground - visible is only the part of building - is The Crown Prince's Palace.

The Kronprinzenpalais (Crown Prince's Palace) is a landmark late Neoclassical-style building at one end of Unter den Linden in Berlin. It was a palace of the ruling Hohenzollern house of Prussia until the abolition of the monarchy at the end of World War I. It then became an annexe of the Berlin National Gallery, housing a preeminent collection of modern art. It was closed by the Nazis and the building was destroyed in World War II. It was rebuilt in 1968 and used by East Germany as a guest house for official visitors to their capital of East Berlin. Since German reunification it has been used for exhibitions and cultural events.

A little further, on the right side - the building was in the depths, on banknote you can not see it - today is Old commandant building (Alte Kommandantur). The fact is, that at the time, when the image was made for the note, there was a building of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the GDR, which was built in 1964-1967. It was dismantled in 1995 and then began the restoration of the Old Commandant's building, which suffered after World War II and was demolished.

ZeughausOn foreground, on the left side, is the building of the Zeughaus (old Arsenal). From 1952 till 1990s (when the banknote was issued) it was the Museum of German History (Museum für Deutsche Geschichte) in the Zeughaus, which presented the history of Germany, especially in the modern era. Today, the Zeughaus is the site of the Deutsches Historisches Museum (German Historical Museum).

The Zeughaus (old Arsenal) in Berlin, Germany is the oldest structure at Unter den Linden. It was built by the Brandenburg Elector Frederick III between 1695 and 1730 in the baroque style, to be used as an artillery arsenal for the display of cannons from Brandenburg and Prussia. The first building master was Johann Arnold Nering. After his death in 1695, he was followed by Martin Grünberg, then Andreas Schlüter and finally Jean de Bodt. Andreas Schlüter designed the keystones above the round-arch windows in the form of heads of giants. Georg Friedrich Hitzig (1811-1881) constructed the monumental flight of steps to the upper floor of the north wing and also a roof over the courtyard.

The building was converted into a military museum in 1875.

In March 1943, Rudolf von Gersdorff tried, but failed to assassinate by suicide bombing Adolf Hitler, during the opening of an exhibition in this museum.

From 1949-1965 the Zeughaus was restored after heavy war losses, the interior being completely redesigned.

ZeughausBehind the old Arsenal building is Berlin TV Tower (Berliner Fernsehturm) on Alexanderplatz.

The Fernsehturm (English: Berlin TV Tower) is a television tower in central Berlin, Germany.

Close to Alexanderplatz in Berlin-Mitte, the tower was constructed between 1965 and 1969 by the administration of the German Democratic Republic (GDR). It was intended as a symbol of Berlin, which it remains today, as it is easily visible throughout the central and some suburban districts of Berlin. With its height of 368 meters, it is the tallest structure in Germany, and the second tallest structure in the European Union (by a half-meter).

The tower has become one of the most prominent symbols of the country and is often in the establishing shot of films set in Berlin. Due to its location near Alexanderplatz, it is occasionally called Alex Tower.

The original total height of the tower was 365 meters (1,198 ft.), but it rose to 368 meters (1,207 ft.) after the installation of a new antenna in 1997. The Fernsehturm is the fourth tallest freestanding structure in Europe, after Moscow's Ostankino Tower, the Kiev TV Tower and the Riga Radio and TV Tower. The sphere is a visitor platform and a revolving restaurant in the middle of the sphere. The visitor platform, also called panoramic floor, is at a height of about 203 meters (666 ft.) above the ground and visibility can reach 42 kilometers (26 mi.) on a clear day. The restaurant Telecafé, which rotates once every 30 minutes, is a few meters above the visitors platform at 207 meters (679 ft.). When first constructed, it turned once per hour; the speed was later doubled following the tower's 1997 renovation. Inside the shaft, two lifts shuttle visitors to the sphere of the tower within 40 seconds. A Stairway with 986 steps also provides access, however it is not accessible by wheelchair.

To mark the 2006 FIFA World Cup in Germany, for which the final match was played in the Berlin Olympic Stadium, the sphere was decorated as a football with magenta-coloured pentagons, reflecting the corporate colour of World Cup sponsor and owner of the Fernsehturm, Deutsche Telekom.

In 1964, Walter Ulbricht, leader of the Socialist Unity Party which governed East Germany, decided to allow the construction of a television tower modelled on the Fernsehturm Stuttgart and the first artificial Earth satellite, Sputnik. The TV tower had several architects. Its former design was done by Hermann Henselmann, and Jörg Streitparth. It was built by the East German architects Fritz Dieter, Günter Franke and Werner Ahrendt between 1965-1969. Walter Herzog, Gerhard Kosel and Herbert Aust later also took part in the planning. The Tower was deliberately constructed in the center of the historic medieval center of Berlin, resulting in the destruction of a huge portion of the historic center of the capital of Germany. A medieval church stands next to the tower as a testament to the destruction of the old city. Construction began on 4 August 1965. After four years of construction, the Fernsehturm began test broadcasts on 3 October 1969, and it was officially inaugurated four days later on the GDR's National Day. Regardless of its dark origins, It is among the best known sights in Berlin, and hosts around a million visitors a year.

Technical details:

1 tuned mass damper

Entrance of observation deck is 6.25 meters (20.5 ft.) above ground

2 Kone lifts for transport of visitors

1 lift for transport of technical equipment

Steel stairway with 986 steps

Evacuation platforms at 188 meters (617 ft.) and 191 meters (627 ft.) high

Observation deck at 203.78 meters (668.6 ft.)

Restaurant at 207.53 meters (680.9 ft.)

Height of the tower: 368.03 meters (1,207.4 ft.)

Weight of the shaft: 26,000 tonnes (26,000 long tons; 29,000 short tons)

Weight of the sphere 4,800 tonnes (4,700 long tons; 5,300 short tons)

Diameter of the sphere 32 meters (105 ft.)

Zeughaus ZeughausCentered, on background, is the Palace of the Republic (Palast der Republik).

The Palace of the Republic (German: Palast der Republik) in Berlin was the seat of the parliament of the German Democratic Republic (also known as East Germany), the Volkskammer (People's Chamber), and also served various cultural purposes. Located between Schlossplatz and the Lustgarten (referred to jointly as Marx-Engels-Platz from 1951 to 1994) on an island in the River Spree, it also housed two large auditoria, art galleries, a theatre, 13 restaurants, a bowling alley, a post office, and a discothèque. On 23 August 1990, the Volkskammer ratified the treaty on German reunification, which was later also confirmed by the Bundestag in Bonn. The building was constructed between 1973 and 1976 on the site of the former Berliner Stadtschloss (City Palace), and was completely demolished by 2008 to make room for a reconstruction of the Stadtschloss, which began in 2013 and should be finished in 2019.

The Palast was constructed from 1973 to 1976, having bronze-mirrored windows as a defining architectural feature. The grand opening ceremony was held on 23 April 1976, and the building was opened to the public two days afterwards on 25 April 1976. It was built on the site of the former Berliner Stadtschloss (Berlin City Palace), which was heavily damaged during World War II and eventually demolished by the government authorities in 1950, as they had no budget in the post-war years for the restoration of what they in any case regarded as a symbol of Prussian imperialism.

Just prior to German reunification in October 1990, the structure was found to be contaminated with asbestos, and was closed to the public on 19 September 1990, by decree of the Volkskammer. By 2003, all the asbestos had been removed along with internal and external fittings allowing either safe reconstruction or safe deconstruction.

Despite the fact that the majority of East Germans opposed the demolition and various protests by people who felt the building was an integral part of Berlin's culture and the historic process of the German reunification, in November 2003, the German parliament decided to demolish the building and leave the area as parkland until funding for the reconstruction of the Berlin City Palace could be found. Demolition started on 6 February 2006, and was scheduled to last about fifteen months at a cost of €12 million. The demolition lasted longer than scheduled because of hazards to neighbouring buildings. Dismantling of the structure was seriously delayed after more asbestos was discovered in various locations, and the estimated completion date was pushed back to the end of 2008.

About 35,000 tonnes of steel which once held this building together were shipped to the United Arab Emirates to be used for the construction of the Burj Khalifa.

In January 2006 the Bundestag definitively voted for the rebuilding of the Prussian-era Stadtschloss. Three façades of the palace will be exact replicas of the original, but the interior will be a modern one. The new palace will be called the Humboldtforum, and will house the Humboldt collection and gallery of non-European art.

In November 2008, the Italian architect Francesco Stella was chosen for the project.

ZeughausBehind the Palace of the Republic is the Rotes Rathaus visible.

The Rotes Rathaus (Red City Hall) is the town hall of Berlin, located in the Mitte district on Rathausstraße, near Alexanderplatz. It is the home to the governing mayor and the government (the Senate of Berlin) of the Federal state of Berlin. The name of the landmark building dates from the facade design with red clinker bricks.

The Rathaus was built between 1861 and 1869 in the style of the north Italian High Renaissance by Hermann Friedrich Waesemann. It was modelled on the Old Town Hall of Toruń, today Poland, while the architecture of the tower is reminiscent of the cathedral tower of Notre-Dame de Laon in France. It replaced several individual buildings dating from the Middle Ages and now occupies an entire city block.

The building was heavily damaged by Allied bombing in World War II and rebuilt to the original plans between 1951 and 1956. The Neues Stadthaus, which survived the bombing and had formerly been the head office of Berlin's municipal fire insurance Feuersozietät in Parochialstraße served as the temporary city hall for the post-war city government for all the sectors of Berlin until September 1948. Following that time, it housed only those of the Soviet sector. The reconstructed Rotes Rathaus, then located in the Soviet sector, served as the town hall of East Berlin, while the Rathaus Schöneberg was the town hall of West Berlin. After German reunification, the administration of reunified Berlin officially moved into the Rotes Rathaus on 1 October 1991.

The inscription on top: "Wer Banknoten nachmacht oder verfälscht oder nachgemachte oder verfälschte sich verschafft und in Verkehr bringt, wird bestraft".

In English: "Who imitates banknotes or falsified or forged or falsified procures and markets it, will be punished."

On left side, again, is the coat of arms of GDR.

Denominations in numerals are in lower corners, in words at bottom, centered.

Comments:

The State Bank of the GDR (German: Staatsbank der DDR) was the central bank of East Germany. It was established on 1 January 1968 from the Deutsche Notenbank and took over the majority of the same tasks.

The State Bank of the GDR was responsible for the administration of the internal account settlement and banking system, the issue of money and control of money circulation within the GDR, administration of the exchange control regulations and settlement of foreign currency accounts with overseas companies and governments (Zahlungsverkehr by transfer). In addition, the bank bought and sold financial securities and administered the purchase, sale and holding of precious metals for foreign exchange purposes.

The state bank was also responsible for the account processing of the state institutions and state enterprises, (Volkseigener Betrieb), having at least one main branch in each of the 15 administrative subdivisions of the German Democratic Republic.