header Notes Collection

2 Mark 1922, Rauschen, Germany

Manfred Mehl. Deutsche Serienscheine Number: 1102.1
Years of issue: 01.05.1922
Edition: --
Signatures: Unknown signature
Serie: Notgeld of East Prussia (today Russia)
Specimen of: 01.05.1922
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 90 х 62
Printer: M.Bauchwitz, Stettin

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

2 Mark 1922, Rauschen




Meandering squares (Verschlungene Quadrate).


Meandering squares (Verschlungene Quadrate).


2 Mark 1922, Rauschen

Rauschen Rauschen

The Warm Bath building (Warmbad) and marine spas tower (Wasserturm) are the main symbols of the city Rauschen (Svetlogorsk).

The main attraction and decoration of Svetlogorsk is Rauschens famous tower, located on the street Oktyabrskaya 11. The Marine spas tower is 25 meters high and recognized as the hallmark of this city.

Since the completion of the tower has been more than 100 years. In East Prussia from the mid XIX until the first third of the XX century a lot of different water towers have been built, but that tower till today is the most beautiful. It was built by the famous architect Otto Walter Kuckuck in 1900-1908. The building with a tower built in the style of national romanticism. In 1978, the tower was decorated with a sundial, which are organically fit into the overall appearance of the building. The author of this watch is painter and sculptor from Svetlogorsk Nikolai Frolov.

Rauschen Rauschen

Around the tower is formed by a small area, which previously played the role of the urban environment center - the town hall. The building housed the sea baths, which meets all requirements of the spa treatment at the time. Tourists come here to enjoy the warm sea and carbonic baths, mud treatments visited and electrotherapy. The water bath was pumped directly from the sea by a pump and passed through a special pipeline. Under the roof of the tower housed the observation deck, where guests can enjoy stunning views of the sea and gave the view of the city, which in the summer is very green. Currently Rauschen tower acting hydropathical and belongs to Svetlogorsk military sanatorium, and an observation deck, unfortunately, is closed to tourists. ( rus.)

Надпись: "1 Mark wolle die Landesbank für die Provinz Ostpreußen Nebenstelle Rauschen, Samland, dem Überbringer dieses vergüten zu lasten unseres Kontos.

Der Gemeindevorstand."

In English: "1 Mark will pay Landesbank of the province of East Prussia, Rauschen, region Samland, to the bearer of this coupon at the expense of our account.

The parish council."

Denomination in numerals are on right and left sides.


2 Mark 1922, Rauschen

Rauschen Rauschen

The view at Rauschen on Mühlenteich (Mill pond).

At bottom is an inscription: "Blick auf dem Mühlenteich"

In English: "View at the Mill pond"

Svetlogorsk (Russian: About this sound Светлого́рск​ (help·info)), prior to 1946 known by its German name Rauschen (Polish: Ruszowice; Lithuanian: Raušiai), is a coastal resort town and the administrative center of Svetlogorsky District of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the coast of the Baltic Sea on the Sambia Peninsula, 39 kilometers (24 mi.) northwest of Kaliningrad, the administrative center of the oblast.

Svetlogorsk is situated in the historical region of Sambia of East Prussia. It was established in 1258 as a Sambian fishermen settlement, named Ruse-moter (lit. region of cellars). The Teutonic Order that conquered the land gradually corrupted the name into Rause-moter, Raushe-moter, and finally Rauschen.

In the XIII century Knights of the German (Teutonic) Order came here and first called the settlement "Raushe-moter" and the XIV century, in consonance with the indefinite form of the German verb "Rauschen" (noise, rustle) - Rauschen. Ribbons brothers asked village life a new direction: they blocked the creek Katzenbach, flowing into the lake, and installed on the creek the mill. Since then the lake has been called Muhlenteich (Mill Pond), and the mill was the main thing for the villagers. In Teutonic times it was the largest mill on the Samland.

Muhlenteich (Mill Pond) is located in the heart of the city, it is very convenient for rowing and is surrounded by a promenade. In the eastern part of the pond, around which originally was founded Rauschen, especially picturesque countryside - there remained still some old limes. There is also a lime, which is more than 400 years old. It has more than 8 meters in circumference and is called "thousand-year lime". Rauschen Mill was on the other side of the pond. It already existed in 1583, and survived the war, worked probably more in 1946, but then, finally, was demolished.

Years go by, XIV century begins, and the village’s name transforms into “Rauchen”. For a long time Rauchen has been a little settlement, and only in XIX century the town becomes famous as a resort center.


1820 is the year, when Rauchen resort is born.

In 1840 Prussian king Friedrich Wilhelm IV visits the Baltic shores near Rauchen. The king o fascinated with beautiful scenery and orders to plant forests around the lake and along sandy dunes down to the sea. More and more people from surrounding towns spend their vacation in Rauchen. In 1895 the town consists of 215 inhabitants and 800 visitors, and in 1930 - of 2000 inhabitants and 6000 visitors. These are the times, when military elite begins building summer villas in Rauchen, and town’s golden era starts.

In 1900 a railway is built together with Rauchen railway station, connecting the town with Konigsberg (later known as Kalinigrad) – many more visitors can arrive and stay in this fantastic recreational area. In 1904 the Promenade was built, followed by cable-way “Georgienswalde” in 1906 and a red-brick gothic church in 1907.

Rauchen’s famous sight is hydropathic establishment, raised in 1908, which boasts a huge bathing hall and 25 meter tall water tower - this building is seen from any point of the town. In 1912 town authorities build funicular railway to make the way to the sea even more convenient. The area is quickly covered with summer houses and pensions. With time the town becomes a famous seaside climatic health resort with excellently developed infrastructure of tourism and medical treatment.

Another sight of Rauchen is a unique plant collection. The Arboretum is collected by Rauchen’s citizens, who loved their town and wanted to see it beautiful. Seamen have to bring little plants from countries they have visited. Any one, who wants to enter the town either for vacation or on business, has to bring a tree or a bush with him as a pass. Japanese magnolia and evergreen rhododendron, azalea and North American hydrangea, larches, pines, maples, bird cherry trees, sea-buckthorns and many more plants please eyes of resort’s dwellers and visitors.

Resort’s life freezes only during wars - World Wars I and II, when pensions serve as hospitals for wounded soldiers. Rauchen enters Russian Federation in 1947 as Svetlogorsk.


Today Svetlogorsk is a climatic and mud-bath health resort with a wide network of health centers, preventoriums, pensions and holiday homes. Resort’s peat mud and hydrocarbonate sodium mineral water attract many guests. Since 1971 the town is a republican resort, and in 2000 it acquires federal importance. In 1973 a new promenade and a staircase with 265 steps are built. The staircase leads to the sundial, made of colourful mosaic glass and oriented on the North Star.

Denomination in numerals are on top, on right and left sides.


Designer: H. Schubert.

Notgeld (German for "emergency money" or "necessity money") refers to money issued by an institution in a time of economic or political crisis. The issuing institution is usually one without official sanction from the central government. This occurs usually when sufficient state-produced money is not available from the central bank. Most notably, notgeld generally refers to money produced in Germany and Austria during World War I and the Interbellum. Issuing institutions could be a town's savings banks, municipality and private or state-owned firms.

Notgeld was mainly issued in the form of (paper) banknotes. Sometimes other forms were used, as well: coins, leather, silk, linen, postage stamps, aluminium foil, coal, and porcelain; there are also reports of elemental sulfur being used, as well as all sorts of re-used paper and carton material (e.g. playing cards). These pieces made from playing cards are extremely rare and are known as Spielkarten, the German word for "playing card".

Notgeld was a mutually-accepted means of payment in a particular region or locality, but notes could travel widely. Notgeld is different from occupation money that is issued by an occupying army during a war.

Many thanks to Chris Bowers, from Great Britain, the grandson of Franz Bauchwitz, for provided information and the photos about the company.

Rauschen Rauschen

Moritz Bauchwitz and his wife Emma (nee Salomon) began printing works with the firm of M Bauchwitz in 1884, in their private home, in Stettin. At the beginning of the XX century it was a very good business, so they decided to build a modern printing factory in the center of Stettin, which they called Gutenberghaus.

It opened in 1911, on the Klosterhof 3, the architect was Siegfried Pavel. In memory of the opening of the factory, a small 48-page booklet, with photos and text, was published.

The printing house "M Bauchwitz" succeeded in the 1920s, mainly from public sector contracts, but because the Bauchwitz family was originally Jewish, when the Nazis came to power, in 1933, most of the contracts fell away, and in 1936, Gauleiter of Stettin "bought" a company from the family for one Reichsmark!!! Franz Bauchwitz (grandfather of Chris Bowers) fled to England in 1939.