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1 Dollar 1987, Singapore

in Krause book Number: 18a
Years of issue: 12.01.1987
Edition: 310 035 000
Signatures: Chairman: Dr. Goh Keng Swee
Serie: 3rd Series - Ship Series (1984-1999)
Specimen of: 1987
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 125 x 63
Printer: TDLR (Thomas de la Rue & Company), London

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

1 Dollar 1987

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Head of the lion.

When it was first unveiled, some sections of the public felt that it should have been facing rightwards to represent a more forward looking nature. However, the original left-facing lion was maintained.

Avers:

1 Dollar 1987

Sha-chuan

Centered is the "Sha Chuan" (sand boat) - the ancient Chinese junk.

By "Sand boat" sometimes called the Chinese ships, similar to that shown in the figure. This ship has a flat bottom, so can swim in shallow water near the sandbanks without the risk of running aground.

Sha-chuan is the sea junkб equipped by five sails, which became the prototype of many Chinese ships options, including ocean-going junks combat. The largest members of this class had a length till 60 meters.

Originating in Chongming County of East China's Jiangsu Province, the predecessor of Sha-chuan junks can be traced back to the Spring and Autumn Period (770-446 B.C.). The model was named "sand-proof flat-bottom ship" during the Song Dynasty (960-1279) and "flat-bottom ship" in the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368). Not until the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) was it called "sand ship".

The sand ship has many laudable characteristics. First, it is very safe. The flat bottom can prevent the ship from stranding while also helping it to safely sail in wind or waves. Also, due to the flat bottom, the waterline is low, which makes the ship more tide-resistant. Second, the ship, which can sail down or against wind or water, has good navigability. Third, with a large deck and other equipment, the sand ship has the best stability among the ancient ships. Finally, with its many masts and sails, which help to minimize resistance, the sand ship can sail swiftly.

Sha-chuan Sha-chuanWith both the bow (front end) and stern (back end) square-shaped, the sand ship is also called "square boat." It is a typical flat-bottom sailing ship with a low freeboard (the distance between the water and a ship's deck), large deck camber (the arched part of the deck), and a long projecting stern gallery (balcony). Its bow, which is obviously lower than the stern, is convenient for anchoring (as well as pulling anchor) or mooring. Near the waterline, several hardwood logs are fitted to the ship, from bow to stern, to improve its stability. To reduce the ship's lateral drifting when navigating, a leeboard (plank frame) is fitted on each side, which is a symbol of the sand ship.

As to the sand ship's holding capacity, it varies according to historical records: 500 to 800 tons, or 250 to 400 tons, but the large oceangoing vessels of the Yuan Dynasty could hold as much as 1,200 tons.

During the reign of Emperor Daoguang of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), there were 5,000 sand ships in Shanghai alone, and over 100,000 in the whole country. Sand ships were widely used, serving both river and sea purposes. Historical records reveal that Chinese sand ships reached Java (Indonesia) as early as in the Song Dynasty (about the 10th century). Frescos depicting sand ships can still be found in India and Indonesia. (www1.chinaculture.org)

Grus japonensis

To the right of the ship is stylized (very stylized) Chinese or red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) (as saying Singapore Mint website). I personally could see only some stylized feathers or something like that.

The red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis), also called the Japanese crane (traditional Chinese: 丹頂鶴; simplified Chinese: 丹顶鹤; pinyin: Dāndǐng Hè; Japanese: 丹頂鶴 or タンチョウヅル; rōmaji: tanchōzuru; Korean: 두루미; romaja: Durumi; the Chinese character "丹" means "red", '頂/顶' means "crown" and "鶴/鹤" means "crane"), is a large East Asian crane and among the rarest cranes in the world. In some parts of its range, it is known as a symbol of luck, longevity and fidelity.

Cranes are an important motif in Chinese mythology. There are various myths involving cranes, and in Chinese mythology cranes are generally symbolically connected with the idea of immortality. Chinese mythology refers to those myths found in the historical geographic area of China. The geographic area of "China" is of course a concept which has evolved of changed through history. Cranes in Chinese mythology include myths in Chinese and other languages, as transmitted by Han Chinese as well as other ethnic groups (of which fifty-six are officially recognized by the current administration of China). (Yang 2005:4) The motifs of cranes may vary in a range from reference to real cranes (such as the red-crowned crane) to referring to transformed Taoist immortals (xian), who sometimes were said to have magical abilities to transform into cranes in order to fly on various journeys.

Top left is coat of arms of Singapore.

coat

The National Coat of Arms of Singapore is the heraldic symbol representing the Southeast Asian island nation of Singapore. It was adopted in 1959, the year Singapore became self-governing within the British Empire. The committee that created it, headed by then Deputy Prime Minister Toh Chin Chye, was also responsible for the national flag and the national anthem of Singapore.

At the center of the emblem is a red shield bearing a white crescent (a new moon, representing a rising young nation) and five white stars (representing various national ideals including multiculturalism), supported by a lion and a tiger (representing Singapore and Malaysia respectively); below them is a blue ribbon inscribed with Majulah Singapura in gold, Malay for "Onward Singapore".

The central emblem of the coat of arms is a red shield with five white stars resting above a white crescent, similar to the crescent and stars used on the Singapore flag and such other national symbols as the national ensign for civilian ships. Red symbolizes "universal brotherhood and equality of man" and white "pervading and everlasting purity and virtue". The crescent represents a new moon, which reflects "a young nation on the ascendant", while the five-pointed stars "stand for the nation's ideals of democracy, peace, progress, justice and equality".

The supporters of the shield are a lion and a tiger: the tiger symbolizes the nation's historical connections to Malaysia (which Singapore was a state of from 1963 to 1965) while the lion represents Singapore itself. Below the supporters is a blue ribbon on which the national motto, Majulah Singapura, is written in gold. Majulah Singapura is also the title of the national anthem; it means "Onward Singapore" in Malay, the national language of Singapore.

Lower are the stylized sea waves. In lower right corner is the Chinese carp or the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

Denomination in numerals are in top right and lower left corners, in words lower, centered.

Revers:

1 Dollar 1987

Vanda Miss Joaquim

Centered is the national flower of Singapore - Vanda Miss Joaquim.

Naturalized Armenian women constituted a serious competitor to other participants of Singapore flower exhibitions. Most of the 1890 prize for his plant got Maggie Cheyter, Irene and Rips Johannes, but dominated by women of different generations of the family Joachim, received in 1897, 18 of the 104 prizes. In the history of the country has remained an Armenian Agnes Joaquim, that gave orchid variety "Vanda Miss Joaquim". In 1947, this amazingly beautiful flower was chosen as the emblem of the Progressive Party, and in 1981 - the national flower, symbol of Singapore.

The eldest daughter of Parsika and Hurel Joaquim, Agnes, from her youth fond of floriculture, as well as many other women of her family. From 1893 to 1895 years, it has taken over three annual exhibitions in Singapore, a total of twenty-seven first places and fifteen second. But her finest hour came in the 1899th, to the best in many years show, "highlight" which became her "Vanda", obtained by crossing two varieties of orchids - Burmese Vanda teres and Malay Vanda hookeriana. New flower Agnes withdrew in 1893, and at the same time introduced to Henry Ridley, Director of the Singapore Botanic Gardens. He sent information about the flower in the flower authoritative edition of the "Gardeners' Chronicle", where it was published. In 1897, "Vanda Miss Joaquim" first blossomed on European soil. This orchid has caused delight at the Royal Agricultural Show in London, where a certificate has been awarded the first category. To date, nearly 440 hybrids obtained by crossing varieties of flowers "Vanda Miss Joaquim".

Sentosa Satellite Earth Station

Right of the flower is the satellite dish in International Maritime Satellite System INMARSAT on Sentosa Island, Singapore.

The Sentosa Satellite Earth Station (Chinese: Malay: Stesen Satelit Bumi Sentosa) is Singapore's first satellite earth station. The station is located at Sentosa Island. It was established in 1970. The second antenna was built two years later in 1972 as more traffic grows. This station is managed and owned by SingTel.

Since the early part of the XX century, radio had provided the means of communication

between ships at sea and land. This medium had served the shipping community well, though

for long distances it used HF, with the issues already mentioned for aviation. By the 1960s and 1970s significant improvements had been made with such innovations as single sideband (SSB), use of VHF frequencies, radio telex and assignment of high frequencies for distress calling. Nevertheless, use of Morse code (at 500 kHz) and frequencies around 2 MHz. were still common, and undeniably the radio medium was experiencing difficulties with congestion of frequencies, interference to coast stations, and being subject to the vagaries of the ionosphere. Furthermore, the services were generally manually operated and incapable of automatic connection to the worldwide telephone and telex networks.

4.2 Establishment of the International Maritime Satellite Organisation (Inmarsat).

Recognising the problems inherent in maritime communications, the Inter-Governmental

Maritime Consultative Organisation (IMCO, now the International Maritime Organisation –

IMO) in 1972 established a Panel of Experts to study maritime satellite communications,

which in turn led IMCO in November 1973 to convene a series of three international

conferences. These culminated in the adoption of a Convention and Operating Agreement

on the International Maritime Satellite Organisation (Inmarsat) in 1976, which came into

force in 1979 and resulted in the formation of the Inmarsat organisation in July of that year.

Parties to the Convention were States, but Parties to the Operating Agreement (known as

Signatories, who would own and operate the system) were either telecommunications

organisations or maritime entities nominated by their States.

4.3 Allocation of adjacent frequency bands for aeronautical and maritime satellite

communications.

The aviation industry has always striven to win and keep enough spectrum to meet its safety and operational communications needs and as long ago as 1947 had obtained exclusive

allocation of the 1,530 - 1,670MHz band (L-band) for the aeronautical radio-navigation

Journal of Aeronautical History Paper No. 2015/04247 service. The need for spectrum for maritime satellites was recognised at the 1971 International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Maritime World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC) and resulted in some of the band being re-allocated, with allocations being created for both the aeronautical and the maritime satellite services. Reflecting foresight about the similarity of the two services, the allocations were made adjacent. In 1979, the ITU General WARC readjusted these allocations to reflect the expected creation of Inmarsat and the demise of AEROSAT, and allocated nearly equal spectrum for the maritime mobile satellite service and the aeronautical mobile satellite (R) service, with a 1MHz common band for all mobile services for distress and safety. Subsequent WARCs in 1987 and 1992 modified these allocations, with the aeronautical service losing 5 MHz to land mobile satellite

services, such that the spectrum available for aeronautical satellite communications was then 1545 MHz-1555 MHz downlink (satellite to aircraft) and 1646.5 MHz-1655 MHz uplink (aircraft to satellite). The bands allocated to aeronautical were initially designated (R), indicating that they were only for en-route safety and airline operational communications, but it was agreed at the 1987 WARC that they could also be used for public correspondence (that is, telephone and other communications services for aircraft passengers), provided that safety services retained priority.

4.4 The beginnings of Inmarsat maritime services.

Inmarsat in its early days did not design or implement a new system – it inherited a working maritime satellite communications system. Well before the advent of Inmarsat, Comsat Corporation in 1976 established a maritime communications system known as Marisat, partly to satisfy a need for the US Navy and partly in recognition of the trend to maritime communications by satellite. Inmarsat took over operation in February 1982 and leased the Marisat satellites, augmenting them with the lease of two Marecs satellites developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the lease of three maritime packages on Intelsat satellites to give near-global coverage. From 1990 onwards, Inmarsat started to deploy its own specified "Inmarsat-2" satellites. Inmarsat also adopted the ship earth station standard (SES) from Marisat, the "Standard-A" which required a rather large (>1 meter) parabolic tracking antenna on each ship and was therefore usually applied to larger vessels. It provided analogue voice service, telex, plus fax and data via modems. In 1990 Inmarsat introduced Standard C, or "Inmarsat-C" which had a small non-tracking antenna, designed to be small enough to fit the smallest vessels. It provided low-rate and low-cost messaging services, not voice, but could implement group calling, and was accepted by IMO for Safety of Life At Sea applications.

Since then, there have been further Standards, progressively reducing SES sizes (M, GAN,

BGAN) with adaptations to be used on land as well as in the air. To support them, large

investments have had to be made in upgraded satellites, with substantially improved receiver sensitivity, transmit power, and capacity. (aerosociety.com)

Denomination in numerals are in top left and lower right corners.

Comments:

The Ship Series of currency notes is the third set of notes to be issued for circulation in Singapore. Issued in the years 1984 to 1999, it retains the number of denominations as was in the previous two series of notes, but switches the $20 note for the $2 one.

A maritime theme to reflect Singapore's maritime heritage was adopted, and progressively shows across the various denominations, the different kinds of ships which have plied Singapore's waters as the country developed. These vignettes are located on the front of the note. On the back, various scenes depicting Singapore's achievements are shown, as well as an orchid, to symbolize the country's national flower.