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50 Diram 1999, Tajikistan

in Krause book Number: 13a
Years of issue: 30.10.2000
Edition: --
Signatures: Chairman: Murodali Alimardon, First Vice-Governor: Sharif Rahimzoda
Serie: 2000 Issue
Specimen of: 1999
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 100 x 60
Printer: Giesecke und Devrient GmbH, Leipzig

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

50 Diram 1999

Description

Watermark:

watermark

The emblem of the National Bank of Tajikistan.

emblem

The emblem of the National Bank of Tajikistan shows three snow-capped ridges - Alai, Zaalaysky Mountains and the Pamirs (same as on the coat of arms).

Avers:

50 Diram 1999

Abu Ibrahim Ismail ibn Ahmad Abu Ibrahim Ismail ibn AhmadAbu Ibrahim Ismail ibn Ahmad (Persian: ابو ابراهیم اسماعیل بن احمد سامانی‎‎, d. November 907), better known as Isma'il ibn Ahmad, was the Samanid amir of Transoxiana (892-907) and Khorasan (900-907). His reign saw the emergence of the Samanids as a powerful force. He was the son of Ahmad ibn Asad and a descendant of Saman Khuda, the founder of the Samanid dynasty who renounced Zoroastrianism and embraced Islam.

During his brother Nasr's reign, Isma'il was sent to take control of Bukhara, which had been devastated by looting on the part of forces from Khwarazm. The citizens of the city welcomed Isma'il, seeing him as someone who could bring stability.

Soon afterwards, a disagreement over where tax money should be distributed caused a falling out between Nasr and Isma'il. A struggle ensued, in which Isma'il proved victorious. Although he took effective control of the state, he did not formally overthrow his brother, instead remaining in Bukhara. He did so because Nasr had been the one whom the Caliph had given the formal investiture of Transoxiana to; in the caliph's eyes, Nasr was the only legitimimate ruler of the region. Furthermore, the Saffarids of Sistan had claims on Transoxiana; the overthrow of Nasr would have given the Saffarids a pretext for invading. Isma'il therefore continued to formally recognize Nasr as ruler until the latter's death in August 892, at which point he officially took power.

Isma'il was active to the north and east, steadily spreading Samanid influence as well as solidifying his control over other areas including Kirman, Sistan and Kabul. Ismail was successful in establishing economic and commercial development and organized a powerful army. It was said that he made his capital Bukhara into one of Islam's most glorious cities, as Ismail attracted scholars, artists, and doctors of law into the region. The first translation of the Qu'ran into Persian was completed during Samanid rule. Sunni theology greatly cultivated during Ismail's reign, as numerous mosques and madrassas were built.

In 893, Ismail took the city of Talas, the capital of the Karluk Turks, taking large numbers of slaves and livestock. In addition, a Nestorian church was converted into a mosque. He also brought an end to the Principality of Ushrusana, extending Samanid control over the Syr Darya river. Ismail and other Samanid rulers propagated Islam amongst the inhabitants and as many as 30,000 tents of Turks came to profess Islam. During his reign he subjugated numerous regional states to the east, directly incorporating some within his boundaries and retaining the local rulers of others as vassals. Khwarezm to the north was partitioned; the southern part remained autonomous under its Afrighid rulers, while the northern part was governed by a Samanid official. Another campaign in 903 further secured the Samanid boundaries. These campaigns kept the heart of his state safe from Turkish raids, and allowed Muslim missionaries to expand their activities in the region.

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The State Emblem of Tajikistan is in top left corner.

It is a modified version of the original emblem of the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic that was in use until the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.

The crown at the center of the emblem is the same as the Tajik national flag, and refers to the Persian word taj, meaning crown, from which the name of the Tajik people is said to be derived, according to one interpretation. The base of the emblem contains a representation of a book and the Pamir Mountains. The emblem is flanked by cotton on one side and wheat on the other, as well a banner of the national red-white-green colors of Tajikistan is wrapped around the cotton and wheat.

According to M.Revnivtsev, the "crown", depicted in the center of the national flag and coat of arms in the upper part of Tajikistan, includes three stylized fixtures - three sacred inextinguishable fire that are the subject of religious worship in the Zoroastrian temples. A central element of "crown" symbolizes the world mountain Hara, located in the center of the world, and the curved arc of gold at the bottom of the emblem represents "retaliation bridge" Chinvat, where the Day of Judgment Zarathustra will separate the righteous from the wicked soul.

Seven gold five-pointed stars, according M.Revnivtsev, represent one of the basic concepts of Zoroastrianism - the seven good spirits Amesha Spenta - incarnation and inner circle of the supreme god Ahura Mazda (Ormuzd). Located along the arc of a circle of gold stars form Farn - sun shining beginning, the divine fire, its material emanation from analogue halo of Christian saints.

21 sunbeam - repeated three times in the group at 7-rays - represent the three emanations of Ahura Mazda with 7 good spirits Amesha Spenta.

Golden Mountains with silver tops - snow-capped ridges Alai, Zaalaysky Mountains and the Pamirs.

Wheat ears - a symbol of agriculture and settled life, inherited, like the rising sun, the emblem of the Soviet Union.

On right and left sides are the Tajik national ornament (pattern).

Denominations in numerals are in three corners, in words at bottom.

Revers:

50 Diram 1999

All internet sites are saying about reverse of this banknote - mountain valley and that is ALL!

I wrote on this subject in the National Bank of Tajikistan, but so long got no answer.

After reviewing a lot of photos of the republic, I have come to a definite conclusion. I want to note - this is just my guess! So far, no evidence in support of my argument I have not received.

I thought that normally, on banknotes depict something extraordinary, something special in the area. Unless, of course, we are not talking about the image of animals and plants (although in these cases are often depicted endemics).

Therefore, it seemed to me, that on the reverse of the banknote is Madian (Madianskaya) valley and the highest mountain district center of the former USSR (now C.I.S) - the settlement Murghab (Мурғоб).

Madianskaya valley begins at the south end of the village Murghab. Top stretches 40 kilometer unpaved road, that will lead to the village of Madian, further, 5 kilometers from the village, in the valley, located Madian Hot Springs. In the hospital operated baths, greenhouses, cafe and yurt camp.

Мурғоб МурғобMurghab (Tajik Мурғоб; Russian Мургаб, from the Persian word مرغاب (margh-ab) meaning "prairie river") is the capital of Murghob District in the Pamir Mountains of Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region, Tajikistan. With a population of 4,000, Murghab is about the only significant town the eastern half of Gorno-Badakhshan. It is the highest town in Tajikistan (and of the former Soviet Union) at 3,650 m above sea level. It located at the junction of the Murghab River and the Pamir Highway.

The Pamir Highway goes north to Sary-Tash and on to Osh in Kyrgyzstan and southwest to the region's capital Khorog (about 300 kilometers distant). A newer road goes east over the Kulma Pass to the Karakoram Highway in China connecting to Tashkurgan to the south and Kashgar in the north. When the new road opened in May 2004, only Chinese and Tajik nationals were allowed to cross the Tajik–Chinese border at that point; the status of the border crossing in 2010 remains the same and according to locals in near future no plans are to open Kulma for other nationals.

Мурғоб МурғобThe place was founded by the Russians as Pamirsky Post in 1893, as their most advanced military outpost into Central Asia.

The modern town was constructed during the period of Soviet rule of Tajikistan as a rest stop along the Pamir Highway. The population is about 25% Pamiri and 75% Kyrgyz. Murghab is expected to become a major center for trade between Xinjiang and central Asia.

Мурғоб МурғобThe Köppen Climate Classification sub-type for Murghab is "ET" or a Tundra Climate. The average annual temperature is -3.9 °C (25.0 °F). The warmest month is July with an average temperature of 8.7 °C (47.7 °F) and the coolest month is January with an average temperature of -18.7 °C (-1.7 °F). The average annual precipitation is 347.7 mm. (13.69 in.) and has an average of 87.1 days with precipitation. The wettest month is May with an average of 45.1 mm. (1.78 in.) of precipitation and the driest month is September with an average of 10.9 mm. (0.43 in.) of precipitation.

Denominations in numerals are in three corners, in words at bottom.

Comments:

The somoni (Tajik: cомонӣ) is the currency of Tajikistan. It is subdivided into 100 diram (Tajik: дирам). The currency is named after the father of the Tajik nation, Ismail Samani (also spelled Ismoil Somoni).

The somoni was introduced on 30 October 2000; it replaced the Tajikistani ruble, at the rate of 1 somoni = 1000 rubles.

The currency is divided into 100 diram for one somoni. Diram banknotes were first introduced on 30 October 2000 to start the currency off and coins were introduced later in 2001 with the intention of creating a more efficient monetary system and gradually replacing the diram notes. This was also the first time circulating coins were introduced in Tajikistan.