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5 Pula 1992, Botswana

in Krause book Number: 11a
Years of issue: 1992
Edition:
Signatures: Minister of finance: Hon. Sir Quett Ketumile Jonny Masire (in office 1967-1980), Governor: Mr. Quill Hermans
Serie: 1992 Issue
Specimen of: 1992
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 130 x 65
Printer: Harrison ans Sons Limited, UK (after 1997 Thomas De La Rue security), Hayes and High Wycombe

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5 Pula 1992

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Rearing zebra.

Bank logoThe image taken from the Logo of Bank of Botswana.

Avers:

5 Pula 1992

Quett Ketumile Joni Masire, GCMG (born 23 July 1925 in Kanye, Botswana) was the second President of Botswana for the Botswana Democratic Party from 1980 to 1998. He stepped down and was succeeded by the then Vice-President of Botswana, Festus Mogae, who became the third President of Botswana. Prior to this, he was a leading figure in the independence movement and then the new government, and played a crucial role in facilitating and protecting Botswana’s steady financial growth and development.

In the 1961 Masire helped found the Botswana Democratic Party BDP). He was instrumental in the formation of the party, and served as its first secretary-general.

In 1965 the Democratic Party won 28 of the 31 contested seats in the new Legislative Assembly, giving it a clear mandate to lead Botswana to independence. The following year Masire became the new nation's vice-president, serving under Seretse. Until 1980 he also occupied the significant portfolios of finance (from 1966) and development planning (from 1967), which were formally merged in 1971.

As a principal architect of Botswana's steady economic and infastructural growth between 1966 and 1980, Masire earned a reputation as a highly competent technocrat. However, his local Bangwaketse political base was eroded by his old nemesis Bathoen. During the initial years of independence the Democratic Party government moved decisively to undercut many of the residual powers of the chiefs. As a result, in 1969 Bathoen abdicated, only to reemerge as the leader of the opposition National Front. This set the stage for Bathoen's local electoral victory over Masire during the same year. However, the ruling party won decisively at the national level, thus allowing Masire to maintain his position as one of the four "specially elected" members of Parliament.

Five days after the death of Seretse Khama, Masire was elected president by secret ballot at the National Assembly on 18 July 1980. Masire's terms were characterised by an emphasis on developments through regional and international organisations. Masire was chairman of the Southern African Development Community and vice chairman of the Organisation of African Unity; he was also chairman of the Global Coalition for Africa and a member of the UN group on Africa Development.

In August 1988, while flying with his staff to a summit in Angola, his executive jet was accidentally shot at by an Angolan Air Force MiG-23. The plane was damaged and Masire was injured, but the co-pilot was able to make a successful emergency landing.

Since his retirement in 1998 Sir Ketumile Masire has been involved in numerous diplomatic initiatives in a number of African countries, including Ethiopia, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Ghana and Swaziland. Between 1998 and 2000 he served as Chairman of the International Panel of Eminent Personalities Investigating the Circumstances Surrounding the 1994 Rwanda Genocide, and between 2000-2003 was the facilitator for the Inter-Congolese National Dialogue, which had the objective of bringing about a new political dispensation for the Democratic Republic of Congo, in terms of the Lusaka Ceasefire Accord.

In 2007, Sir Ketumile Masire set up the Sir Ketumile Masire Foundation to promote the social and economic well being of the society of Botswana. The Foundation strives to facilitate and drive efforts to promote peace, good governance and political stability internationally; assist children with disabilities from birth; and promote innovation and alternatives in agriculture.

Sir Ketumile is also a founding Member of the Global Leadership Foundation, an organization which works to support democratic leadership, prevent and resolve conflict through mediation and promote good governance in the form of democratic institutions, open markets, human rights and the rule of law. It does so by making available, discreetly and in confidence, the experience of former leaders to today’s national leaders. It is a not-for-profit organization composed of former heads of government, senior governmental and international organization officials who work closely with Heads of Government on governance-related issues of concern to them.

In May 2010 Sir Ketumile Masire led an African Union Election Observer Mission to the May 2010 Ethiopia Legislative Elections, and in October 2010 he co-led (with fellow GLF Member Joe Clark) a National Democratic Institute pre-election assessment mission in Nigeria, which identified a number of hurdles that could undermine a successful process surrounding the 2011 state and national polls.

He was the chancellor of the University of Botswana from 1982-1998.

coat of armsIn top right corner is the coat of arms of Botswana.

The coat of arms of Botswana was adopted on January 25, 1966. The center shield is supported by two zebras. The shape of the shield is that of traditional shields found in East Africa. On the top portion of the shield are three cogwheels that represent industry.

The three waves symbolize water, and reminds the viewer of the motto of the nation: pula, which means simply "rain", but also good luck, and is the name of the nation's currency. This motto also highlights the importance of water to Botswana. The motto is found at the bottom of the coat of arms on a blue banner.

At the bottom of the shield is the head of a bull, which symbolizes the importance of cattle herding to Botswana. The two zebras are present since zebras are an important part of Botswana's wildlife. Also, zebra has black and white stripes, which represent equality of people of all colors in Botswana. The zebra on the right holds an ear of sorghum, an important crop in the nation. The zebra on the left holds a tusk of ivory, symbolic of the former ivory trade in Botswana. There is also view that ivory tusk represents wild life preservation. Botswana is one of the countries with a highest number of elephants in Africa.

Numida meleagrisIn center is The helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris), subspecie Numida meleagris papillosus (Reichenow, 1894) or Damara helmeted guineafowl.

The helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris) is the best known of the guineafowl bird family, Numididae, and the only member of the genus Numida. It is native to Africa, mainly south of the Sahara, and has been widely introduced into the West Indies, Brazil, Australia and southern France.

The helmeted guineafowl is a large (53-58 cm.) bird with a round body and small head. They weigh about 1.3 kg. The body plumage is gray-black spangled with white. Like other guineafowl, this species has an unfeathered head, in this case decorated with a dull yellow or reddish bony knob, and red and blue patches of skin. The wings are short and rounded, and the tail is also short. Various sub-species are proposed, differences in appearance being mostly a large variation in shape, size and colour of the casque and facial wattles.

There are nine recognized subspecies:

N. m. coronatus (Gurney, 1868) - natal helmeted guineafowl - eastern South Africa

N. m. galeatus (Pallas, 1767) - West African guineafowl - western Africa to southern Chad, central Zaire, and northern Angola

N. m. marungensis (Schalow, 1884) - Marungu helmeted guineafowl - south Congo Basin to western Angola and Zambia

N. m. meleagris (Linnaeus, 1758) - Saharan helmeted guineafowl - eastern Chad to Ethiopia, northern Zaire, Uganda and northern Kenya

N. m. mitratus (Pallas, 1764) - tufted guineafowl - Tanzania to eastern Mozambique, Zambia, and northern Botswana

N. m. papillosus (Reichenow, 1894) - Damara helmeted guineafowl - southern Angola to Botswana and Namibia

N. m. reichenowi (Ogilvie-Grant, 1894) - Reichenow's helmeted guineafowl - Kenya and central Tanzania

N. m. sabyi (Hartert, 1919) - Saby's helmeted guineafowl - northwestern Morocco

N. m. somaliensis (Neumann, 1899) - Somali tufted guineafowl - northeastern Ethiopia and Somalia.

Ribs of the GiraffeAt bottom is a seen-through image (also presented on reverse) in form of stylized African pattern - "Ribs of the Girafee".

Denominations in numerals are in three corners. In words lower, centered.

Revers:

5 Pula 1992

OryxThe Oryx antelopes (Oryx gazella).

The gemsbok or gemsbuck (Oryx gazella) is a large antelope in the Oryx genus with long, spear like horns.

The name "gemsbok" in English is derived from Afrikaans gemsbok, which itself is derived from the Dutch name of the male chamois, gemsbok. It has a thick, horse like neck with a short mane and a compact, muscular body. A defined pattern of black markings that contrast with the white face and fawn-colored body are prominently displayed in dominance rituals to emphasize the length of horns and strength of the shoulder. The head is marked with black triangular patches and broad black stripes that extend from the base of the horns over the eyes to the cheeks. Originally, various oryx species were found in all of Africa's arid regions.

Denominations in numerals are in three corners. In words lower, centered.

Comments:

At the time of independence in 1966, Botswana was a member of the Rand Monetary Area (RMA) and the South African rand served as the national currency. However, with the decision, announced on September 6 1974, to withdraw from the RMA, the country was committed to introducing a new currency. This required substantial preparatory work, including choosing the name for the currency, and how much and in what denominations it should be produced. Regarding the name, the choice of Pula (meaning ‘rain’ or ‘blessings’) as the basic unit made up of 100 thebe (‘shield’) was overwhelmingly supported by a poll of public opinion. Thomas de la Rue and Company and the Royal Mint, both from Britain, were chosen to design and supply the notes and coins, respectively.

The new national currency was launched on August 23, 1976, subsequently known as ‘Pula Day’. An initial period of 100 days was allowed for the exchange of rand for pula, during which time the parity between the two currencies was guaranteed; various standby arrangements were also put in place to ensure enough supply of foreign exchange should the conversion take longer than expected. However, these were quickly cancelled as it soon became clear that the new currency was being enthusiastically received by the public. A large proportion of the rand circulating in Botswana was exchanged within a few weeks of Pula Day.

At the time of launching the Pula, the denomination structure consisted of four notes (P1, P2, P5 and P10) and four coins (1t, 5t, 25t, and 50t). Over the years, due to rising prices, higher value notes have periodically been introduced and coins, which last much longer, are now used for smaller denominations that are used more frequently. The lowest value coins have also been demonetized. Nonetheless, such adjustments have not been frequent, indicating the successful use of appropriate monetary and exchange rate policies to help maintain the value of the currency.

The design of the currency has been consistently based on symbolic illustration of the socio-economic, political and cultural make-up of Botswana as a country, including the importance of democracy, tourism and mining. The design has been periodically reviewed both to improved security to counter forgeries and to make appropriate adjustments to the artwork. Regarding the latter, since the launch of the Pula in 1976, it had been the practice for all new notes to feature the portrait of the current president. However, since 1997 each denomination features a different portrait, with only the P10 note showing the current president. (Bank of Botswana)