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10 Rupees 1937, India

in Krause book Number: 19a
Years of issue: 01.07.1937
Edition: --
Signatures: Governor: Sir James Braid Taylor (in office 1 July 1937 - 17 February 1943)
Serie: 1937 Issue
Specimen of: 01.07.1937
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 146 х 83
Printer: Government of India Mint and the Security Printing Press, Nasik, India

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

10 Rupees 1937

Description

Watermark:

HM The King George VI

HM The King George VI. Engraving is the same, as on obverse.

Avers:

10 Rupees 1937

Centered, on background, are the lake, mountain and banana plant.

banana plant

The Musaceae (Banana plant) are a family of flowering plants, placed in the order Zingiberales. The family is native to the tropics of Africa and Asia. The plants have a large herbaceous growth habit with leaves with overlapping basal sheaths that form a pseudostem making some members appear to be woody trees. In most treatments, the family has two genera, Musa and Ensete. Cultivated bananas are commercially important members of the family.

On right side HM The King George VI.

George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George, 14 December 1895, York Cottage, Sandringham House, Norfolk, United Kingdom - 6 February 1952, Sandringham House, Norfolk) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death. He was the last Emperor of India and the first Head of the Commonwealth. Until 1947 the Emperor of India.

HM The King George VI

The traditional profile of the monarch for a picture on the banknotes and coins. Made with a photo shoots on the coronation of George VI, made in 1937.

On His Majesty is St Edward's Crown.

St Edward's Crown

St Edward's Crown is one of the oldest of British Crown Jewels and is considered the principal piece of the Regalia, being the coronation crown traditionally used in the coronation of first English, then British, monarchs, including Queen Elizabeth II, who now reigns as the monarch of 16 independent Commonwealth realms. The crown takes its name from St Edward the Confessor, although the present crown is in fact a reconstruction made for the coronation of King Charles II in 1661, following the destruction of its medieval predecessor during the Interregnum by order of Oliver Cromwell. Two-dimensional representations of the crown are used in coats of arms, badges, and various other insignia throughout the Commonwealth realms to indicate the authority of the reigning sovereign, reflecting the executive governmental authority in and of each realm.

The present St Edward's Crown contains much of the crown made in 1661. It is constructed of solid gold. The design comprises a base, with four crosses pattée alternating with four fleurs-de-lis, above which rise four half-arches surmounted by a monde and cross, all set with 444 precious stones. Within this gold frame there is a velvet cap with an ermine border, which protrudes below the base. The stones were formerly hired for each coronation and then detached, leaving only the frame. However, in 1911 the jewels were set permanently. A number of changes were made for the coronations of King James II (a new monde) and King William III (the base being changed from its original circular form to a more natural oval one). The crown was also made slightly smaller to fit the head of King George V, the first monarch to be crowned with St. Edward's Crown in over two hundred years. The crown was, however, carried in procession at other coronations at which it was not actually worn.

Queen Victoria and King Edward VII chose not to be crowned with St Edward's Crown because of its weight of 4 lb 12 oz (2.2 kg) and instead used the lighter Imperial State Crown. St. Edward's Crown was placed on the coffin of Edward VII for his lying in state and funeral in 1910, and was used for the coronation of his crowned successors; Kings George V in 1911 and George VI in 1937 and at the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in 1953. On 4 June 2013, it was displayed on the altar in Westminster Abbey at the sixtieth anniversary service of the Queen's coronation-the first time it had left the Tower of London since 1953.

Although always regarded as the "official" coronation crown, in fact, only a minority of monarchs have been crowned with the re-made St. Edward's Crown. These were Charles II (1661), James II (1685), William III (1689), George V (1911), George VI (1937) and Elizabeth II (1953). All other English and British monarchs were crowned with other crowns: Queens Mary II and Anne with small diamond crowns of their own; Kings George I, George II, George III, and William IV with George I's new state crown; King George IV with a large new diamond crown; and Queen Victoria and King Edward VII with Victoria's 1838 Imperial State Crown. Before 1649, many monarchs were crowned with the original St. Edward's Crown, though they often had several crowns placed on their head during the ceremony.

Serial number in top part, more to right side.

akant

In all corners are the acanthus leaves.

The acanthus is one of the most common plant forms to make foliage ornament and decoration.

The decoration is made by analogy with the herbaceous plant of acanthus acanthus family, native to the Mediterranean. The shape of its leaves, with a few sharp edges, resembling a bear's paw, was the basis for the drawing.

Acanthus often represents life and immortality.

Denominations in words are centered and lower right, in numerals are in 3 corners.

Revers:

10 Rupees 1937

Elephant Elephant

Centered, around the seal of The Reserve Bank of India are 2 decorated white (royal) elephants in festive decorations, with mahouts on their backs.

A white elephant (also albino elephant) is a rare kind of elephant, but not a distinct species. Although often depicted as snow white, their skin is normally a soft reddish-brown, turning a light pink when wet. They have fair eyelashes and toenails. The traditional "white elephant" is commonly misunderstood as being albino, but the Thai term chang samkhan, actually translates as "auspicious elephant", being "white" in terms of an aspect of purity.

Elephant

Elephant takes in the culture of India very big place, and this is due not only to the fact, that it is the largest animals, but also with his intellectual qualities and character traits and good memory of elephants is proverbial.

The Earth is supported and guarded by mythical World Elephants at the compass points of the cardinal directions, according to the Hindu cosmology of ancient India. The classical Sanskrit literature also attributes earthquakes to the shaking of their bodies when they tire. Wisdom is represented by the elephant in the form of the deity Ganesh, one of the most popular gods in the Hindu religion's pantheon. Sometimes known as Ganesha, this deity is very distinctive in having a human form with the head of an elephant. This was put on after the human head was either was cut off or burned, depending on the version of the story from various Hindu sources. Lord Ganesha's birthday (rebirth) is celebrated as the Hindu festival known as Ganesha Chaturthi. In Japanese Buddhism, their adaptation of Ganesha is known as Kangiten ("Deva of Bliss"), often represented as an elephant-headed male and female pair shown in a standing embrace to represent unity of opposites.

Elephant

In Hindu iconography, many devas are associated with a mount or vehicle known as a vāhana. In addition to providing a means of transport, they symbolically represent a divine attribute. The elephant vāhana represents wisdom, divine knowledge and royal power; it is associated with Lakshmi, Brihaspati, Shachi and Indra. Indra was said to ride on a flying white elephant named Airavata, who was made the King of all elephants by Lord Indra. A white elephant is rare and given special significance. It is often considered sacred and symbolises royalty in Thailand and Burma, where it is also considered a symbol of good luck. In Buddhist iconography, the elephant is associated with Queen Māyā of Sakya, the mother of Gautama Buddha. She had a vivid dream foretelling her pregnancy in which a white elephant featured prominently. To the royal sages, the white elephant signifies royal majesty and authority; they interpreted the dream as meaning that her child was destined for greatness as a universal monarch or a buddha.

Elephant

Elephants remain an integral part of religion in South Asia and some are even featured in various religious practices. Temple elephants are specially trained captive elephants that are lavishly caparisoned and used in various temple activities. Among the most famous of the temple elephants is Guruvayur Keshavan of Kerala, India. They are also used in festivals in Sri Lanka such as the Esala Perahera.

On left side are denominations in seven Indian languages, in words.

Centered is the seal of Indian reserve Bank.

RBI seal

The selection of the Bank's common seal to be used as the emblem of the Bank on currency notes, cheques and publications, was an issue that had to be taken up at an early stage of the Bank's formation.

The general ideas on the seal were as follows:

1) The seal should emphasise the Governmental status of the Bank, but not too closely

2) It should have something Indian in the design

3) It should be simple, artistic and heraldically correct

4) The design should be such that it could be used without substantial alteration for letter heading, etc.

For this purpose, various seals, medals and coins were examined. The East India Company "Double Mohur", with the sketch of the Lion and Palm Tree, was found most suitable; however, it was decided to replace the lion by the tiger, the latter being regarded as the more characteristic animal of India!

To meet the immediate requirements in connection with the stamping of the Bank's share certificates, the work was entrusted to a Madras firm. The Board, at its meeting on February 23, 1935, approved the design of the seal but desired improvement of the animal's appearance. Unfortunately it was not possible to make any major changes at that stage. But the Deputy Governor, Sir James Taylor, did not rest content with this. He took keen interest in getting fresh sketches prepared by the Government of India Mint and the Security Printing Press, Nasik. As a basis for good design, he arranged for a photograph to be taken of the statue of the tiger on the entrance gate at Belvedere, Calcutta. Something or the other went wrong with the sketches so that Sir James, writing in September I938, was led to remark:

"...... s tree is all right but his tiger looks too like some species of dog, and I am afraid that a design of a dog and a tree would arouse derision among the irreverent. .....'s tiger is distinctly good but the tree has spoiled it. The stem is too long and the branches too spidery, but I should have thought that by putting a firm line under the feet of his tiger and making his tree stronger and lower we could get quite a good result from his design".

Later, with further efforts, it was possible to have better proofs prepared by the Security Printing Press, Nasik. However, it was eventually decided not to make any change in the existing seal of the Bank, and the new sketches came to be used as an emblem for the Bank's currency notes, letter-heads, cheques and publications issued by the Bank.

Source: Reserve Bank of India.

Denomination in numeral is on right side, in words lower, centered.

Comments:

Banknote signed by Sir James Braid Taylor.

C.D. Deshmukh

Sir James Braid Taylor, KCIE (21 April 1891 - 17 February 1943) was the second Governor of the Reserve Bank of India, holding office from 1 July 1937 until his death on 17 February 1943. He succeeded Sir Osborne Smith who was the Governor from 1 April 1935 to 30 June 1937. He was appointed a CIE in the 1933 New Year Honours List, knighted in the 1935 Silver Jubilee and Birthday Honours List and further appointed a KCIE in the 1939 Birthday Honours List.

Taylor, a member of the Indian Civil Service, served as a Deputy Controller in the Currency Department of the Government of India for over a decade. He later became the Controller of Currency, and additionally secretary in the Finance Department. He then became the Deputy Governor of the Reserve Bank and succeeded Smith as the Governor. He was closely associated with the preparation and piloting of the Reserve Bank of India Bill. He governed the bank during the war years and was involved in decision to move from a silver currency to fiat money. Even though he was the second Governor, his signature was the first to appear on the currency notes of the Indian rupee. His second term came to an end when he died in office on 17 February 1943. He was succeeded by Sir C. D. Deshmukh, who became the first Indian to lead the Reserve Bank of India.