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100 Reals 2010, Brazil

in Krause book Number: 256
Years of issue: 2010
Edition: --
Signatures: Ministro da Fazenda: Guido Mantega, Presidente Do Banco Central Do Brasil: Alexandre Antonio Tombini
Serie: The second series of banknotes since 2010
Specimen of: 2010
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 140 x 65
Printer: Casa da Moeda do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro

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100 Reals 2010




The Dusky Grouper and denomination 100.


100 Reals 2010

Efígie da República.


100 Reals 2010

Epinephelus marginatusThe Dusky Grouper (Epinephelus marginatus, formerly Epinephelus gigas), or Merou is the best known grouper of the Mediterranean Sea and North Africa coast. It is said to have the best taste of all Mediterranean fishes.

The Dusky Grouper has a big body with a big mouth. One long dorsal fin and a rounded tail. Its color varies from brown to green depending on the season and the age. It is green during its juvenile phase. The adult is upper brown with yellow spots and lower yellow. On the Operculum there are three spines.

The dusky grouper is a solitary fish. It likes to live alone in rocks, at depths from the coast to 300 meters, but it's rare to find it below 60 meters. It has a barometric distribution, where the younger specimens are found near the coast and the older ones at the depths.

It normally has one cave considered as home and several other caves as temporary refuges. Its home has a minimum of two exits, and a size slightly bigger than the grouper, so no bigger animal can enter in. In case of biting attack or other force to extract it, the grouper opens its mouth, and the operculum spines wedge it inside the cave.

It can be found in the Mediterranean, the African west coast (Azores, Canary Islands) and the coast of Brazil. It is rare in the waters of the western Indian ocean, Uruguay, Argentina, north of France and the British Isles.

On the background are the corals.


Since 1986, Brazilian bank notes contain the words “Deus Seja Louvado” (God Be Praised). In 2012, a federal prosecutor from Sao Paulo sought a court order to force the central bank to replace the nation’s entire supply of paper currency with bills that do not display these words, arguing that Brazil is a secular state and that this phrase violates the rights of non-Christians and nonbelievers. The Bank responded by stating that the preamble to the Brazilian constitution explicitly states that the democracy was formed “under the protection of God”, and that the state, “not being atheist, anticlerical or antireligious, can legitimately make a reference to the existence of a higher being, a divinity, as long as, in doing so, it does not make an allusion to a specific religious doctrine.”