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20 Schilling 1956, Austria

in Krause book Number: 136a
Years of issue: 03.12.1956
Edition: --
Signatures: Generalrat: Karl Ausch, Präsident: Dr. Eugen Margaretha, Generaldirektor: Dr. Franz Stöger - Marenpach
Serie: 1956 - 1965 Issue
Specimen of: 02.07.1956
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 132 х 65
Printer: Oesterreichische Banknoten und Sicherheitsdruck, Wien

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

20 Schilling 1956

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Floral pattern.

Avers:

20 Schilling 1956

Carl Auer von Welsbach Carl Auer von Welsbach Carl Auer von Welsbach Carl Auer von Welsbach

The engraving on banknote is, probably, made after one of these images of Carl Auer von Welsbach.

Carl Auer von Welsbach, also known as Carl Auer, Freiherr von Welsbach (1 September 1858 – 4 August 1929) was an Austrian scientist and inventor who had a talent not only for discovering advances, but also for turning them into commercially successful products. He is particularly well known for his work on rare earth elements, which led to the development of the flint used in modern lighters, the gas mantle which brought light to the streets of Europe in the late XIX century, and for the development of the metal filament light bulb.

Carl Auer was born in Vienna on 1 September 1858 to Therese and Alois Auer. Alois, ennobled in 1860, was director of the Imperial printing office (K.-k. Hof- und Staatsdruckerei) in the days of the Austrian Empire. Carl went to high schools in Mariahilf and Josefstadt. After leaving school in 1877, he joined the Austro-Hungarian Army and was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant.

In 1878 Auer entered the University of Vienna, studying mathematics, general chemistry, engineering physics, and thermodynamics. He then moved to the University of Heidelberg in 1880, where he continued his studies in chemistry under the direction of Robert Bunsen (inventor of the Bunsen burner). In 1882 he received his degree of Ph.D. and returned to Vienna to work as an unpaid assistant in Prof. Adolf Lieben's laboratory, working with chemical separation methods for investigations on rare earth elements.

In 1885 Auer used a method he developed himself to separate didymium for the first time. He saw several different colored versions which he named "praseodymium" (green) and "neodidymium" (pink); the latter then became the more common name for the element, neodymium.

Later that year Auer von Welsbach received a patent on his development of the gas mantle, which he called Auerlicht, using a chemical mixture of 60% magnesium oxide, 20% lanthanum oxide and 20% yttrium oxide which he called Actinophor. To produce a mantle, guncotton is impregnated with a mixture of Actinophor and then heated, the cotton eventually burns away leaving a solid (albeit fragile) ash which glows brightly when heated. These original mantles gave off a green-tinted light and were not very successful, and his first company formed to sell them failed in 1889.

In 1890 he introduced a new form of the mantle based on a mixture of 99% thorium dioxide and 1% cerium(IV) oxide which he developed in collaboration with his colleague Dr. Haittinger. These proved both more robust as well as having a much "whiter" light. Another company founded to produce the newer design was formed in 1891, working with fellow student from the university Ignaz Kreidl, and the device quickly spread throughout Europe.

He then started work on development of metal-filament mantles, first with platinum wiring, and then osmium. Osmium is very difficult to work with, but he developed a new method which mixed osmium oxide powder with rubber or sugar into a paste, which is then squeezed through a nozzle and fired. The paste burns away, leaving a fine wire of osmium.

Although originally intended to be a new mantle, it was during this period that electricity was being introduced into the market, and he started experimenting with ways to use the filaments as a replacement for the electric arc light. He worked on this until finally developing a workable technique in 1898, and started a new factory to produce his Auer-Oslight, which he introduced commercially in 1902. The metal filament light bulb was a huge improvement on the existing carbon filament designs, lasting much longer, using about 1/2 the electricity for the same amount of light, and being much more robust.

In 1903 Auer von Welsbach won another patent for a fire striker ("flint") composition named ferrocerium. Welsbach's flints consisted of pyrophoric alloys, 70% cerium and 30% iron, which when scratched or struck would give off sparks. This system remains in wide use in cigarette lighters today. In 1907 he formed Treibacher Chemische Werke GesmbH to build and market the devices. In 1920 he received the Siemens-Ring as his name had become a synonym for the rise of artificial lightning.

Over the rest of his life he turned again to "pure" chemistry and published a number of papers on chemical separation and spectroscopy. He presented a major paper on his work on the separation of radioactive elements in 1922.

On March 10, 1906, Carl Auer von Welsbach announced the OSRAM trademark for Electric incandescent goods and arc lamps at the former Imperial Patent Office in Berlin.

In 1899 he married Marie Nimpfer, with whom he had four children.

Carl Auer von Welsbach acquired 1893 Geistinger by actress Marie Castle Rastenfeld in Mölbling in Carinthia with the Villa Marienhof, in its place he built Schloss Welsbach. (He died in 1929 there.) After Bunsen death he bought the library of his teacher. He employed reliable partners such. As his longtime lawyer Adolf Gallia, who had to register its patents worldwide. Even Auer was the personification of a researcher and scholar - a systematic and disciplined worker who was economical with words and written statements.

He rests in Vienna, on the Hietzinger Cemetery (Group 19, Number 26) , where, for example, Otto Wagner and Gustav Klimt are buried.

coat

On left side is the coat of arms of Austria.

The current coat of arms of Austria, albeit without the broken chains, has been in use by the Republic of Austria since 1919. Between 1934 and the German annexation in 1938 Austria used a different coat of arms, which consisted of a double-headed eagle. The establishment of the Second Republic in 1945 saw the return of the original (First Republic) arms, with broken chains added to symbolise Austria's liberation.

The blazon of the Federal Arms of the Republic of Austria reads:

Gules a fess Argent, escutcheon on the breast of an eagle displayed Sable, langued Gules, beaked Or, crowned with a mural crown of three visible merlons Or, armed Or, dexter talon holding sickle, sinister talon holding hammer, both talons shackled with chain broken Argent.

The symbols and emblems used in the Austrian arms are as follows:

The Eagle: Austria's sovereignty (introduced 1919)

The escutcheon Emblem of Austria (late Middle Ages, reintroduced 1915)

The mural crown: The middle class (introduced 1919)

The sickle: Agriculture (introduced 1919)

The Hammer: Industry (introduced 1919)

The broken chains: Liberation from National Socialist dictatorship (added 1945).

Denominations in numerals are in all corners, in words centered.

Revers:

20 Schilling 1956

Maria RainView of the mountain range the Karawanks (mount Košuta, Die Koschuta), as well as on parish church of District Maria Rain (Pfarrkirche Maria Rain) in Carinthia, where used to live and died Carl Auer von Welsbach. Photo made around 1956.

The Koschuta (Slovenian: Košuta) is a 14 km long mountain range (Mountain range) in the Karawanken, south of Klagenfurt. Your ridge extending in east-west direction; almost the entire length passes over it the border between Austria and Slovenia.

The Karawanks or Karavankas or Karavanks (Slovene: Karavanke, German: Karawanken) are a mountain range of the Southern Limestone Alps on the border between Slovenia to the south and Austria to the north. With a total length of 120 kilometers (75 mi.) in an east-west direction, the Karawanks chain is one of the longest ranges in Europe. It is traversed by important trade routes and has a great tourist significance. Geographically and geologically, it is divided into the higher Western Karawanks and the lower-lying Eastern Karawanks. It is traversed by the Periadriatic Seam, separating the Apulian tectonic plate from the Eurasian Plate.

Maria RainParish church Marienkirche with double tower is the third largest church in Carinthia.

At the same place probably was a church more than a thousand years ago. Archbishop Odalbert reversed this nähmlich on May 23, 927 his faithful Chorbishop Kotabert against other possessions. The oldest part of the present church building is the western. He goes up to the towers and is built in uniform late Gothic construction. Even before 1660, got the Gothic church on the north wall of the presbytery the northern tower with spire grown. The expansion of the south tower took place only 1718th

A worse blow befell the church building in 1906. The church burned to the ground from. The fire was suppressed due to water shortage, nor its spread can be prevented and the period of barely a quarter of an hour was the whole church and the tower roof in flames. The bars of the south tower collapsed onto the church vault and damaged it, while those of the north tower by beating the vaulted tower. However, as early as 1909 could resist produced church consecrated.

Maria RainView of the mountain range the Karawanks (mount Košuta, Die Koschuta), as well as on parish church of District Maria Rain (Pfarrkirche Maria Rain) in Carinthia, , where used to live and died Carl Auer von Welsbach.

Maria Rain (Slovene: Žihpolje) is a town in the district of Klagenfurt-Land in the Austrian state of Carinthia, known for its Baroque parish and pilgrimage church (rebuilt between 1700 and 1729).

Maria Rain lies in the Rosental, 8 km. south of Klagenfurt between the Sattnitz massif and the Drau, which is dammed here to form the Ferlach Reservoir.

Carinthia (German: Kärnten, Slovene: Koroška, Croatian: Koruška, Italian: Carinzia, Hungarian: Karintia) is the southernmost Austrian state or Land. Situated within the Eastern Alps it is noted for its mountains and lakes. The main language is German. Its regional dialects belong to the Southern Bavarian group. Carinthian Slovene dialects, which predominated in the southern part of the region up to the first half of the XX century, are now spoken by a small minority.

Carinthia's main industries are tourism, electronics, engineering, forestry, and agriculture. The multinational corporations Philips, Infineon and Siemens have large operations there.

Denominations in numerals are in all corners, in words centered, lower.

Comments:

Designer: Roman Hellmann.

Born in 1921 in Schwarzach-St. Veit (Salzburg).

Graphic designer. Studied at the Academy of Applied Arts in Vienna. At the beginning of his work commissioned graphic examples for "Elin, Felten & Guilleaume", the Austrian Chamber of Commerce and the Cultural Department of the City of Vienna. From 1952 until his retirement, in 1978, banknote designer at the Austrian National Bank. Hellmann conducted in the National Bank the transition from employment freelance artist out to fix a salaried graphic designers. Designed all Austrian banknotes from 20 shillings 1956 to 50 schilling of 1970th. In addition, design of numerous test scores and advertising on behalf of "De La Rue Giori".

Obverse engraver: Alfred Nefe (1923 -) studied engraving under, among others, Professor Hans Ranzoni. Nefe's career at the Austrian National Bank began in 1948, and ended with his retirement in 1978. Created many well-known post stamps of the Austrian Republic.

Reverse engraver: Rudolf Toth (1918 - 2009). Austrian engraver, made many sets of stamps and some banknotes.