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1000 Korun 1940, Slovakia

in Krause book Number: 13a
Years of issue: 17.08.1942 - 31.10.1945
Edition:
Signatures: Guverner: Imrich Karvaš (1939 - 1944), Riaditel: Martin Kollár (03.1939 - 1950)
Serie: Banking Act No. 44 of April 4, 1939
Specimen of: 25.11.1940
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 192 x 90
Printer: TB NBČM, Praha

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

1000 Korun 1940

Description

Watermark:

1000 Korun 1940Linden leaves with seeds.

Avers:

1000 Korun 1940

SvätoplukOn right side is a tableau (engraving was made specially for banknote) - Prince Svatopluk I (Prince of Great Moravia) is on the bed. The headboard of his bed consist of wooden carvings and an eagle - the emblem of Great Moravia. At his feet is a bearskin.

The picture shows the well-known parable about how Svatopluk I taught his sons - Mojmír II, Svatopluk II and Predslav, to be together (budte svorni).

The legend says: "Keď umieral kráľ Svätopluk, prikázal priniesť vrbiny, čeľadníci priniesli za náručie vŕbových prútov, z akých sa robia rebrá košov. Poptom kráľ z nich kázal upliesť korbáč dvanástpramenný - lebo toľko mal synov aj s ľavobočkami, bol z toho riadny šibák; niektorí si mysleli, že ho pozvŕta po mnohých chrbtoch, lebo aj tesne pred posledným dychom chce Svätopluk ukázať, aká mocná je jeho trestajúca ruka. Kráľ vyzval každého zo synov, aby tento zväzok prútov zlomil. To sa nikomu nedalo. Potom kráľ povedal, aby korbáč rozplietli, vzali po jednom prúte a lámali, tak sa každý prút poddal, každý praskol. Kráľ sa prihovoril synom - ak budete držať medzi sebou vedno ako prúty v tom korbáči, nik vás nezlomí. Ak budete nesvorní, budete sa hádať a ríšu si podelíte na kúsky, budete slabí ako tie prúty a nepriatelia vás premôžu ľahko jedného po druhom, tak hovoril kráľ Svätopluk, keď umieral".

Approximate translation into English: "When Svätopluk was dying, he ordered him to bring the willow branches, of which usually strong wove baskets, and call him his son.

Someone thought that the prince decided even death to show his sons a tough hand, but it was not so. He would call each of the sons of closer and told him to break a wand, and then try to break a three wands together. Then the prince said to them - If you are going to stay together, then nobody will break you and you always will be weak alone, like those single wand, which was not difficult to break. And its always easier to fight with enemies together - so said Svätopluk, when he died".

At the edges of the picture are Moravian folk patterns, woven three willow wands (symbolizing a parable, about the power to be together) and linden leaves (see the description of the watermark 1000 Korun and 500 Korun).

In the lower left corner of the main picture are: the sword of Svätopluk (symbol of his many military campaigns and victories), parchment and again, woven 3 willow wands.

Svatopluk I or Svätopluk I, also known as Svatopluk the Great (Latin: Zuentepulc, Zuentibald, Sventopulch, Old Church Slavic Свѧтопълкъ and transliterated Svętopъłkъ, Greek: Sphendoplokos) was a ruler of Great Moravia, which attained its maximum territorial expansion during his reign (870-871, 871-894).

The Annals of Fulda refer to Svatopluk as a nephew of Rastislav, the second known ruler of Great Moravia. Svatopluk was most probably born around 840. His father's name was Svetimir, according to the late XII century Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, a medieval historical work long dismissed as a collection of fact and fiction. According to the unproven later Moravian tradition of Tomáš Pešina z Čechorodu (XVII century), who fulfilled the family tree of the House of Mojmír, Svatopluk was the son of a certain Bogislav.

Svatopluk seems to have risen to power in Great Moravia in the early 860s. The Life of Methodius relates that Svatopluk and his uncle jointly asked the Byzantine Emperor Michael III to send missionaries who were familiar with the Slavic tongue to Moravia. Michael III chose two brothers, Cyril and Methodius, who were fluent in the dialect of Slavic spoken in the environs of Thessaloniki (Greece). They arrived in Moravia in 863, and immediately set to work teaching and preaching. Their translation of liturgical texts into Old Church Slavonic was approved by Pope Hadrian II in 867.

SvätoplukSvatopluk's career started in the 860s, when he governed a principality within Moravia, the location of which is still a matter of debate among historians, under the suzerainty of his uncle, Rastislav. In 870 Svatopluk dethroned Rastislav, who was a vassal of Louis the German, and betrayed him to the Franks. Within a year, however, the Franks also imprisoned Svatopluk. After the Moravians rebelled against the Franks Svatopluk was released and led the rebels to victory over the invaders. Although he was obliged to pay tribute to East Francia under the peace treaty concluded at Forchheim (Germany) in 874, he was able to expand his territories outside the Franks' sphere of interest in the following years. His forces even invaded the March of Pannonia within East Francia in 882.

Svatopluk established a good relationship with the popes, and he and his people were formally taken under the protection of the Holy See in 880. Pope Stephen V even addressed him as "King" in a letter written in 885. Svatopluk seems to have wanted to appease the German clergy who opposed the conducting of the liturgy in Old Church Slavonic, and he expelled the disciples of Methodius from Moravia in 886, after their teacher's death.

Svatopluk's state was a loose assemblage of principalities and also included conquered territories.

Not long after his death Svatopluk's realm of Great Moravia collapsed in the midst of a power struggle between his sons and the intensifying Hungarian raids.

Svatopluk, whose empire encompassed the whole or parts of the territory of modern Slovakia, has occasionally been presented as a "Slovak King" in literary works since the XVIII century, the period of the Slovak national awakening.

coat

Centered, on background, is the coat of arms of Slovakia.

The coat of arms of Slovakia consists of a red (gules) shield, in early Gothic style, charged with a silver (argent) double cross standing on the middle peak of a dark blue mountain consisting of three peaks. Extremities of the cross are amplified, and its ends are concaved. The double cross is a symbol of its Christian faith and the hills represent three symbolic mountain ranges: Tatra, Fatra and Mátra (the last one is in northern Hungary).

One of the modern interpretations of the double cross is that it represents Slovakia as an heir and guardian of Christian tradition, brought to the region by St. Cyril and St. Methodius, two missionaries from the Byzantine Empire.

Denominations are across all field of banknote (centered). Also, in numerals, in three corners, in words centered.

Revers:

1000 Korun 1940

patternsMoravian ornamental rosette.

coat

Centered, in ornamental rosette, is the coat of arms of Slovakia.

The coat of arms of Slovakia consists of a red (gules) shield, in early Gothic style, charged with a silver (argent) double cross standing on the middle peak of a dark blue mountain consisting of three peaks. Extremities of the cross are amplified, and its ends are concaved. The double cross is a symbol of its Christian faith and the hills represent three symbolic mountain ranges: Tatra, Fatra and Mátra (the last one is in northern Hungary).

One of the modern interpretations of the double cross is that it represents Slovakia as an heir and guardian of Christian tradition, brought to the region by St. Cyril and St. Methodius, two missionaries from the Byzantine Empire.

On right side are repeated micro-print "Slovenska Narodna Banka".

I received an answer from Chief Archivist of Archives Section in National Bank of Slovakia, Mr. František Chudják - and I am very grateful to him for the answer, regarding languages on reverse of this banknote.

That is what he wrote to me:

"..referring to your request of 11 August 2015 regarding an inscription on 500 Korun 1944 banknote, we would like to inform you that all paper money, which were issued in the period of the war Slovak republic in 1939-1945, were marked on reverse in four languages – in Slovak, German, Hungarian and Russian. The Government of the Slovak republic resolved at a meeting held on 1 June 1939 that the entire issue of banknotes should be marked on reverse in four languages. The Russian language was used because there lived about 60 000 Ruthenians (Rusyns) and Ukrainians in the territory of the Slovak republic in 1939–1945. Sincerely yours, František Chudják".

And here is the small extract from Wikipedia, regarding Reform of Russian orthography in 1918 (On banknote is Russian spelling, used before 1918):

"Despite the fact, that the reform was designed long before the revolution without any political goals of professional linguists (in fact, among its development was a member of the far-right Union of the Russian people, Academician Alexei Ivanovich Sobolewski, who proposed, in particular, to eliminate ять and the ends -ыя/-ія), the first steps towards its practical implementation occurred after the revolution, but actually adopted and implemented it was the Bolsheviks. This determined sharply critical attitude to it by the political opponents of Bolshevism (this ratio aphoristic expressed by Bunin: "By order of the Archangel Michael will never accept the Bolshevik spelling. Already at least one that had a human hand did not write anything like that that is now written on the spelling"). It is not used in most editions, is printed on the white-controlled areas, and then in exile. Russian editions abroad for the most part moved to the new spelling only in the 1940s - 1950s, in connection with the second wave of emigration from the USSR; although some of them publishing so far in old spelling."

Denominations in numerals are in all corners, in words centered.

Comments:

Pungency of This banknote is that the author and the engraver are Slovak and Czech, citizens of the original Czechoslovak Republic, which was in 1939 divided on two government departments: Slovak state and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.

An obverse depicts one of the most famous legends of Czechoslovak history, which talks about the disintegration of the Great Moravian Empire.

No other known Banknote in Czech or Slovak history does not show such full trauma for our people as the division of Czechoslovakia.

Designer: Štefan Bednár.

Engraver: Jindřich ("Jindra") Schmidt.

The signatures on banknote made by:

signature

Martin Kollar (October 23, 1889 - May 3, 1956)/

Career at the central bank began to banking authorities of the Ministry of Finance (BUMF) in Prague, which was actually the forerunner of the National Bank of Czechoslovakia (NBCS), where he joined in May 1920. At the end he was transferred to the Košice branch BUMF. Shortly after he was appointed inspector in August 1923, becoming deputy head of the branch. From Kosice him in March 1927, already as a senior auditor, they were transferred to Banska Bystrica branch NBCS in the capacity of head. Six years later he goes to Bratislava for the post of deputy head of. Since April 1938 he was a Head of the branch, which was the most important Slovak branch of NBCS. He holds this post with the title - director of branch NBCS.

Top business allocated to them in the pre-war Issuing Bank gained 1 January 1939, when he was appointed deputy director of NBC-S II. Class A member of the Business Administration NBC-S in Prague. Shortly after the declaration of Slovak autonomy, specifically in the second half of October, have been developed specific proposals to decentralize NBCS. Detailed processing proposal foresees the creation of the Slovak NBCS led by the Deputy Governor, the Bank Board, business administration as well as rebuilding the Bratislava branch to the main institute. While addressing the equal representation of Slovaks in the central organs of the bank and the consequent further necessary changes. At the end of March 1939 began to create a new organizational structure of the Central Bank and its final form it was largely the result of his work. He became the director of the administrative department and function in Slovak National Bank (SNB) and, also, a member of the SNB Directorate. In a short time he built the largest banks and the terms of the functioning of the most important departments - administrative department. After the governor Rudolf Kubis (as sick) left the office in early February 1945, the governor routine internal agenda were entrusted by SNB directors' corps under the leadership by Kollár. Appointment of Interim SNB remain unaffected by Kollar in office. At that time, ensured by one of the main tasks of the Bank; procrastination means of payment and exchange, which was successfully implemented at the turn of October and November 1945. The discontinued operations SNB remained Although the director and the NBCS administrative department, as well as Regional Institute for Slovakia, were existed until the 1950s. (Narodna Banka Slovenska slv.)

signature

Imrich Karvaš (February 25, 1903 - February 22, 1981).

He worked at the Bratislava Law School, where in 1934 he qualified as associate professor and in 1940 as professor of national economy. He has held a variety of duties: secretary of the Association of Slovak banks, Secretary General of the Economics Institute of Slovakia and Ruthenia and Vice President of the Export Institute in Prague. He was a minister in one of the last Czech-Slovak governments.

In April 1939 he was appointed as governor of the Slovak National Bank. Actively promote the preservation of as much independence Slovak economic policy. Particular protective measures included the introduction of various clearing accounts in Slovakia-Germany Commodity contact, compulsory registration of shares of enterprises in Slovakia, maintaining duty-free regime between the Slovak Republic and Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. Has made significant steps in favor of the Slovak National Uprising in August 1944 (moving means of payment to affiliates of the Slovak National Bank in Ruzomberok and Banska-Bystrica, as head of the Supreme Authority for Supply moved in favor of the uprising fuel supplies, distributed to the population for three months in advance), and was arrested by gestapo for that.

After 1945, he was to head the Slovak and Czechoslovak banking. He devoted himself to the work of the Faculty of Law (years 1947-1948 he was the Dean) and was chairman of the International Executive Committee spa. After February 1948, he was persecuted and imprisoned several times. At the end of the sixties it was received rehabilitated. He co-founded the University of Economics in Bratislava in 1940, of chief editor of the monthly economic rozhľady; He wrote more than 50 scientific articles and is the author of an extensive book Foundations of Economics. (Narodna Banka Slovenska slv.)