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1000 Zlotych 1975, Poland

in Krause book Number: 146a
Years of issue: 02.07.1975
Edition: --
Signatures: Prezes: Witold Bień , Glowny Scarbnik: Edmund Banasiak
Serie: 1974-1978 Issue
Specimen of: 02.07.1975
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 138 x 63
Printer: Polska Wytwornia Papierow Wartocziowych, Warszawa

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

1000 Zlotych 1975

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Polish coat of arms.

Avers:

1000 Zlotych 1975

Nicolaus CopernicusThe engraving on banknote is made after this portrait of Copernicus by unknown artist. The portrait is dated 1580 and today is in Town Hall of Polish city Toruń.

Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik, German: Nikolaus Kopernikus; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance mathematician and astronomer, who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe. The publication of this model in his book "De revolutionibus orbium coelestium" (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres) just before his death in 1543 is considered a major event in the history of science, triggering the Copernican Revolution and making an important contribution to the Scientific Revolution.

Copernicus was born and died in Royal Prussia, a region that had been a part of the Kingdom of Poland since 1466. He was a polyglot and polymath who obtained a doctorate in canon law and also practiced as a physician, classics scholar, translator, governor, diplomat, and economist. Like the rest of his family, he was a third order Dominican. In 1517 he derived a quantity theory of money – a key concept in economics – and in 1519 he formulated a version of what later became known as Gresham's law.

In center is Polish coat of arms.

coat

The White Eagle (Polish: Orzeł Biały) is the national coat of arms of Poland. It is a stylized white eagle with a golden beak and talons, and wearing a golden crown, in a red shield.

The White Eagle emblem originated when Poland's legendary founder Lech saw a white eagle's nest. When he looked at the bird, a ray of sunshine from the red setting sun fell on its wings, so they appeared tipped with gold, the rest of the eagle was pure white. He was delighted and decided to settle there and placed the eagle on his emblem. He also named the place Gniezdno (currently Gniezno) from the Polish word gniazdo ("nest").

Denominations in numerals are in lower left corner and centered, in words centered.

Revers:

1000 Zlotych 1975

On left side is atom symbol.

Nicolaus CopernicusCentered is Copernicus' Heliocentric model of the solar system.

Heliocentrism, or heliocentricism, is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System. The word comes from the Greek (ἥλιος helios "sun" and κέντρον kentron "center"). Historically, heliocentrism was opposed to geocentrism, which placed the Earth at the center. The notion that the Earth revolves around the Sun had been proposed as early as the III century BC by Aristarchus of Samos, but at least in the post-ancient world Aristarchus's heliocentrism attracted little attention, possibly because of the loss of scientific works of the Hellenistic Era.

It was not until the XVI century that a geometric mathematical model of a heliocentric system was presented, by the Renaissance mathematician, astronomer, and Catholic cleric Nicolaus Copernicus, leading to the Copernican Revolution. In the following century, Johannes Kepler elaborated upon and expanded this model to include elliptical orbits, and Galileo Galilei presented supporting observations made using a telescope.

With the observations of William Herschel, Friedrich Bessel, and others, astronomers realized that the sun was not the center of the universe as heliocentrists at the time of Copernicus had supposed. Modern thinking is that there is no specific location that is the center of the universe, per Albert Einstein's principle of relativity.

"De revolutionibus orbium coelestium" ("On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres") is the seminal work on the heliocentric theory of the Renaissance astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543). The book, first printed in 1543 in Nuremberg, Holy Roman Empire, offered an alternative model of the universe to Ptolemy's geocentric system, which had been widely accepted since ancient times.

Monogram of Polish Peoples Bank is in lower right corner.

Denominations in numerals are in top right and lower left corners, in words lower, centered.

Comments:

Designer: Andrzej Heidrich.

Engraver: Bogusław Brandt.