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100 Mark 1964, East Germany

in Krause book Number: 26а
Years of issue: 01.08.1964
Edition: --
Signatures: no signature
Serie: 1964 Issue
Specimen of: 01.08.1964
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 150 х 75
Printer: VEB Wertpapierdruckerei der DDR, Leipzig

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

100 Mark 1964

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Karl Marx. The photo made on 24 August 1875 by English photographer John Jabez Edwin Mayall.

Avers:

100 Mark 1964

Karl MarxThe engraving on banknote is made after the photo of Karl Marx. The photo made on 24 August 1875 by English photographer John Jabez Edwin Mayall.

Karl Marx (5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher, economist, sociologist, journalist and revolutionary socialist. Born in Prussia (now Rhineland-Palatinate), he later became stateless and spent much of his life in London. Marx's work in economics laid the basis for much of the current understanding of labour and its relation to capital, and subsequent economic thought. He published numerous books during his lifetime, the most notable being "The Communist Manifesto" (1848) and "Das Kapital" (1867-1894).

Born into a wealthy middle-class family in Trier in the Prussian Rhineland, Marx studied at the universities of Bonn and Berlin where he became interested in the philosophical ideas of the Young Hegelians. After his studies he wrote for the "Rheinische Zeitung", a radical newspaper in Cologne, and began to work out the theory of the materialist conception of history. He moved to Paris in 1843, where he began writing for other radical newspapers and met Friedrich Engels, who would become his lifelong friend and collaborator. In 1849 he was exiled and moved to London together with his wife and children, where he continued writing and formulating his theories about social and economic activity. He also campaigned for socialism and became a significant figure in the International Workingmen's Association.

Marx's theories about society, economics and politics - the collective understanding of which is known as Marxism - hold that human societies progress through class struggle: a conflict between an ownership class that controls production and a dispossessed labouring class that provides the labour for production. States, Marx believed, were run on behalf of the ruling class and in their interest while representing it as the common interest of all; and he predicted that, like previous socioeconomic systems, capitalism produced internal tensions which would lead to its self-destruction and replacement by a new system: socialism. He argued that class antagonisms under capitalism between the bourgeoisie and proletariat would eventuate in the working class' conquest of political power and eventually establish a classless society, communism, a society governed by a free association of producers. Marx actively fought for its implementation, arguing that the working class should carry out organised revolutionary action to topple capitalism and bring about socio-economic change.

Both lauded and criticized, Marx has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history. Many intellectuals, labour unions and political parties worldwide have been influenced by Marx's ideas, with many variations on his groundwork. Marx is typically cited, with Émile Durkheim and Max Weber, as one of the three principal architects of modern social science.

John Jabez Edwin MayallJohn Jabez Edwin Paisley Mayall (1813 in Oldham, Lancashire – 1901) was an English photographer who in 1860 took the first carte-de-visite photographs of Queen Victoria.

Born on 17 September 1813, in Manchester, the county of Lancashire, his birth name was registered as Jabez Meal. He was the son of John and Elizabeth Meal. His father was a manufacturing chemist believed to have specialized in the production of dyes for the linen industry.

By 1817 John Meal and his family were living at Lingards, near Huddersfield in the cloth manufacturing region of West Yorkshire. In Baine's Directory of 1822, Mayall's father, John Meal, is listed as a dyer in Linthwaite.

Coat of arms DDROn background is The coat of arms of GDR.

The national emblem of the German Democratic Republic featured a hammer and a compass, surrounded by a ring of rye. It was an example of what has been called "socialist heraldry".

The hammer represented the workers in the factories. The compass represented the intelligentsia, and the ring of rye the farmers. The first designs included only the hammer and ring of rye, as an expression of the GDR as a communist "Workers' and Farmers' state" ("Arbeiter- und Bauernstaat"). Surrounded by a wreath, the national emblem also acted as the emblem for the East German National People's Army, and when surrounded by a twelve pointed white star, for the People's Police.

When the federated states in East Germany were abolished and replaced by Bezirke, making the GDR into a unitary state, the national emblem came to be used by the regions too. The East Berlin government did not want regional symbols to be used, since they could stir up regional patriotism and movements for independence.

The emblem was adopted as the GDR's national emblem by a law of 26 September 1955, and added to the national flag by a law of 1 October 1959.

The display of the national emblem was for some years regarded as unconstitutional in West Germany and West Berlin and was prevented by the police. Only in 1969 did the West German government of Willy Brandt reverse this policy in what was known as "Ostpolitik".

Denominations in numerals are in lower left corner and centered, in words centered.

Revers:

100 Mark 1964

Brandenburger Tor Brandenburger TorOn foreground is the Brandenburg Gate (Brandenburger Tor) with the state flag of GDR.

The Brandenburg Gate (German: Brandenburger Tor) is an XVIII-century neoclassical triumphal arch in Berlin, and one of the best-known landmarks of Germany. It is built on the site of a former city gate that marked the start of the road from Berlin to the town of Brandenburg an der Havel.

It is located in the western part of the city centre of Berlin within Mitte, at the junction of Unter den Linden and Ebertstraße, immediately west of the Pariser Platz. One block to the north stands the Reichstag building that houses the German parliament (Bundestag). The gate is the monumental entry to Unter den Linden, the renowned boulevard of linden trees, which led directly to the royal City Palace of the Prussian monarchs.

It was commissioned by King Frederick William II of Prussia as a sign of peace and built by architect Carl Gotthard Langhans from 1788 to 1791. Having suffered considerable damage in World War II, the Brandenburg Gate was fully restored from 2000 to 2002 by the Stiftung Denkmalschutz Berlin (Berlin Monument Conservation Foundation).

During the post-war Partition of Germany, the gate was isolated and inaccessible immediately next to the Berlin Wall. The area around the gate was featured most prominently in the media coverage of the tearing down of the wall in 1989, and the subsequent German reunification in 1990.

Throughout its existence, the Brandenburg Gate was often a site for major historical events and is today considered a symbol of the tumultuous history of Europe and Germany, but also of European unity and peace.

The inscription at bottom: "Wer Banknoten nachmacht oder verfälscht oder nachgemachte oder verfälschte sich verschafft und in Verkehr bringt, wird bestraft".

In English: "Who imitates banknotes or falsified or forged or falsified procures and markets it, will be punished."

Centered, more to right side is, again, the coat of arms of GDR.

Denominations in numerals are in lower corners, in words at bottom, centered.

Comments:

The series was withdrawn from circulation on Jan. 1, 1983.

Invalid from 1 January 1984.

The German central bank, the central bank was in the Soviet occupation zone (GDR) from 1948 to 1968. It was founded on July 20, 1948 as a successor of the German emission and clearing bank. In the West Zone and the Federal Republic of Germany, the Bank of German countries from 1957 the Bundesbank took over all tasks.

The seat of the Bank was in East Berlin. The "Law on the German central bank" of 31 October 1951 gave the German central bank the sole right to issue banknotes and to manage the cash transactions of the state budget. The Bank was understanding as a non-independent institution, but supervised by the Ministry of Finance.

A number of financial institutions at the country level have been integrated into the German central bank. For example, the Saxon State Bank and the Issuing Bank of Saxony in 1950 were incorporated into the German central bank.

On 1 January 1968, the German central bank was renamed in State Bank of the GDR.

Legal basis for the work of the German central bank was the "Law regarding the German central bank" from October 31, 1951.

The Presidents of the German central bank:

Willy Huhn (1948–1950)

Greta Kuckhoff (1950–1958)

Martin Schmidt (1958–1961)

Rolf Wetzel (1961–1964)

Helmut Dietrich (1964–1967)

Margarete Wittkowski (1967)