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100 Intis 1987, Peru

in Krause book Number: 133
Years of issue: 26.06.1987
Edition: 140 000 000
Signatures: Director: Sr. Luis Guiulfo Zender, Presidente: Sr. Carlos Capuñay Mimbela, Gerente General: Sr. César Ferrari Quiñe
Serie: No Serie
Specimen of: 1986
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 150 х 75
Printer: Bundesdruckerei GmbH, Berlin

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

100 Intis 1987

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Ramón Castilla y Marquesado.

Avers:

100 Intis 1987

Ramón Castilla y Marquesado

The engraving on banknote is made after this portrait of Ramón Castilla. Today the portrait is in Military Museum of Peru, in Real Felipe Fortress, Callao, Peru.

Ramón Castilla y Marquesado (31 August 1797 – 25 May 1867) was a Peruvian caudillo and President of Peru four times. His earliest prominent appearance in Peruvian history began with his participation in a commanding role of the army of the Libertadores that helped Peru become an independent nation. Later, he led the country when the economy boomed due to the exploitation of guano deposits. Castilla's governments are remembered for having abolished slavery and modernized the state.

He assumed the presidency for the first time after general Domingo Nieto's death for a short period in 1844, then in 1845 until 1851, again from 1855 to 1862 and, finally, during a brief period in 1863.

Castilla was born in Tarapacá (then part of the Viceroyalty of Peru), the second son of Pedro Castilla, of Spanish-Argentine origin, and Juana Marquezado de Romero, who was of part Aymara descent. In 1807 he traveled to Lima at the age of 10 to study with his brother and later continued his education in Concepción, Chile, also helping his brother with his business. In 1817 he enrolled in the Spanish colonial army during Peru's War of Independence, fighting against the independence forces sent by Argentine general José de San Martín.

Castilla became a prisoner of war, but managed to escape and returned to Peru in 1821, deserting the Spanish Army and offering his services to José de San Martín, who enrolled him in the Patriot Army with the rank of lieutenant (a rank he had held with the Spanish Army). When San Martin resigned as "Protector of Peru", Castilla sided with José de la Riva Agüero, who in turn shortly became president in 1823.

In 1824, when the Peruvian Congress named Simón Bolívar dictator or "Liberator of Peru", Castilla joined Bolivar's army, fighting in the decisive Battle of Ayacucho, which helped Peru gain its independence from Spain. In 1825 he was named governor of his native province of Tarapacá. In 1833, Castilla married Francisca Diez Canseco.

In 1839 Castilla beside the Chilean general Manuel Bulnes decided the victory of the Restorative Army in the battle of Yungay (War of the Confederation) and was named Minister of War and Minister of Finance under Agustín Gamarra. Under the latter post, Castilla was responsible for Peru's first lucrative guano exportation. Meanwhile, president Gamarra had been harboring intentions of annexing Bolivia back to Peru and, in 1841, he led an invasion army to Bolivia, only to be defeated and killed by the army of José Ballivián during the Battle of Ingavi, leaving Peru without a leader. During that year various infights among caudillos occurred who constantly proclaimed themselves Presidents. Manuel Menéndez, then Vice President, assumed the presidency, but was overthrown by a coup d'état led by Juan Crisóstomo Torrico in 1842.

Soon after, Castilla, along with Domingo Nieto, overthrew Manuel Ignacio de Vivanco during the Battle of Carmen Alto. Nieto assumed the presidency but died a few months later. Castilla assumed the position on February 17, 1844 until December 11 of that year. After defeating the other caudillos around the country, Castilla reinstated Menéndez as President, in order to achieve a constitutional transition to democracy.

In 1845, Castilla won the Peruvian presidential elections and was sworn in in April of that year. During this time the guano export boom was rapidly expanding, largely due to treaties signed with the British company Antony Gibbs, which had commercialized the guano in Europe. Important urban projects were also begun under this period, such as the first railroad from Lima to Callao, which helped in the transportation of the guano from the production centers ready to be shipped abroad.

After six years in power, Castilla was succeeded by José Rufino Echenique. In 1854, however, another rebellion was led in Peru's second-largest city, Arequipa, by Castilla himself, who was largely urged by other Peruvian liberals to help in the suppression of slavery in the country.

On December 3, 1854, in the city of Huancayo, an abolition of slavery law was passed. As this law was being applied, Castilla confronted and defeated Echenique in the Battle of La Palma on January 5, 1855.

In 1859, Peru had a confrontation with neighboring Ecuador over disputed territory bordering the Amazon. Though Peru was considered successful, Castilla failed to secure a definitive agreement with Ecuador and the issue would haunt both countries until the end of the 20th century when the 1997 Peace and Border Treaty of Itamaraty was signed by Peru and Ecuador in Brazil. In December 1860 a new constitution was enacted during Castilla's presidency and became Peru's supreme law until 1920. Castilla's second presidency, therefore, was marked by the liberation of slaves and indigenous Peruvians, as well as a new postal system and a new constitution.

In 1862 he was succeeded by Miguel de San Román, who died less than a year later. Castilla refused to recognise Pedro Diez Canseco, the Second Vice President of the Republic as well as his brother-in-law, and claimed the presidency for himself. Diez Canseco, however, was chosen as interim president from April to August 1863, and was succeeded by Juan Antonio Pezet.

In 1864 Castilla condemned the international policies of Pezet, only to be jailed and exiled to Gibraltar. During his absence the historic Battle of Callao took place, which became Spain's final and unsuccessful move to reconquer independent Peru.

After he returned to Peru, he was again deported to Chile on the orders of then president Mariano Ignacio Prado. In a last effort to regain power for a fifth time, Castilla – now nearly seventy – and a group of followers landed in Pisagua and proceeded towards the Tiviliche desert. This last try, however, proved fatal and Castilla died at Tiviliche, in his final attempt to pass through southern Peru on May 30, 1867.

Centered is the coat of arms of Peru.

coat

The coat of arms of Peru is the national symbolic emblem of Peru.

All four share the same escutcheon or shield, consisting of three elements: the top left section shows the vicuña, the national animal, on a light-blue field, representing the fauna of Peru; the tree in the top right section is the cinchona tree (the source of quinine, a powerful anti-malarial drug and the key flavorant in tonic water), on a white background, representing the national flora; and the bottom cornucopia with coins spilling from it, on a red field, represents the mineral resources of the country.

The Coat of arms (Escudo de Armas) has a palm branch on its left and an laurel one on its right, tied by a red and white ribbon, as well as a Holm oak Civic Crown above it. These represent God, gold, and glory. This variant is used on the national ensign (Enseña Nacional) or state flag. Its use on its own is infrequent, except on currency, both on coins and bills, and stamps.

vessel

Centered is, presumably, an ancient jug of Chancay culture (1100 AD - 1450 AD). Size: 5" tall x 3.5" across.

A small Chancay pitcher-form vessel from ancient Peru. Constructed from buff-tan terracotta with dark brown-black painted decoration as is typical of Chancay pottery. The elongated spherical body has raised nodes and linear appliques on the bottom half. A tall flared spout with a strap handle which attaches from the spout to the shoulder. Linear and circular painted designs overall.

The Chancay were a pre-Columbian archeological civilization which developed between the valleys of Fortaleza, Pativilca, Supe, Huaura, Chancay, Chillón, Rimac and Lurin, on the central coast of Peru, from about CE 1000 to 1470.

Not much is known about the Chancay civilization which developed in the later part of the Inca empire. This culture emerged after the fall of the Wari civilization. Parts of the southern Chancay area were conquered by the Chimú in the early fifteenth century and in about 1450 A.D. the Incas were occupying both areas. It is believed that the Chancay had a centralized political structure, forming a small regional state. Thus the Chancay culture declined in the fifteenth century to make way for the territorial expansion of the Inca Empire.

Occupying the central coast coastal region of Peru, the Chancay were centered mostly in the Chancay and Chillón valleys, although they also occupied other areas such as the Rimac and Lurin valley areas. The center of the Chancay culture was located 80 kilometers north of Lima. It is a desert region but has fertile valleys bathed by rivers and is rich in resources that allowed for, among other things, extensive agricultural development.

The Chancay developed intense trade relations with other regions, allowing them to interract with other cultures and settlements in a wide area.

nazca artefact

Lower, left, is the ancient gold plaque of Nazca culture.

The gold plaque from the south coast of Peru, Nazca culture, pictured above was found in a Nazca grave and has been identified as a representation of the Sun God. A closer look however reveals that this bearded weeping god with goggled eyes is a South American version of the Mesoamerican creator god Quetzalcoatl. Moreover, rather than the Sun, it represents the twin aspects of the planet Venus as both the Morning Star and Evening Star. Note that the twin posts that emerge from the top of the head may be stylized mushrooms surmounted by twin birds.

Attributes of the god Quetzalcoatl depicted in the gold plaque include his beard, his weeping eyes, and serpents, which on this plaque emerge from his head. The twin birds are likely associated with the resurrection of the Morning Star. Imagery of Venus, Weeping Gods and were-jaguars can also be found on remote Easter Island.

The Nazca culture (also Nasca) was the archaeological culture that flourished from 100 BC to 800 AD beside the dry southern coast of Peru in the river valleys of the Rio Grande de Nazca drainage and the Ica Valley. Having been heavily influenced by the preceding Paracas culture, which was known for extremely complex textiles, the Nazca produced an array of beautiful crafts and technologies such as ceramics, textiles, and geoglyphs (most commonly known as the Nazca lines). They also built an impressive system of underground aqueducts, known as puquios, that still function today. The Nazca Province in the Ica Region was named for this people.

Denomination in numerals are three times. Centered, lower, in words.

Revers:

100 Intis 1987

cotton spinning frame

Woman at work at a ring spinning machine (cotton spinning frame).

Centered is, again, the Chancay pitcher-form vessel.

Moche culture

Lower, right, is the Mochica gold figure with sacrificial knife and head. Today this figure is in Museum of Gold of Peru (Museo de Oro del Peru), in Lima (capital of Peru). The figure on banknote depicted, holding knife and head in opposite hands, not as one in Gold Museum.

The Moche civilization (alternatively, the Mochica culture, Early Chimu, Pre-Chimu, Proto-Chimu, etc.) flourished in northern Peru with its capital near present-day Moche and Trujillo, from about 100 AD to 800 AD, during the Regional Development Epoch. While this issue is the subject of some debate, many scholars contend that the Moche were not politically organized as a monolithic empire or state. Rather, they were likely a group of autonomous polities that shared a common elite culture, as seen in the rich iconography and monumental architecture that survive today.

Both iconography and the finds of human skeletons in ritual contexts seem to indicate that human sacrifice played a significant part in Moche religious practices. These rites appear to have involved the elite as key actors in a spectacle of costumed participants, monumental settings and possibly the ritual consumption of blood. The tumi was a crescent-shaped metal knife used in sacrifices. While some scholars, such as Christopher B. Donnan and Izumi Shimada, argue that the sacrificial victims were the losers of ritual battles among local elites, others, such as John Verano and Richard Sutter, suggest that the sacrificial victims were warriors captured in territorial battles between the Moche and other nearby societies. Excavations in plazas near Moche huacas have found groups of people sacrificed together and the skeletons of young men deliberately excarnated, perhaps for temple displays.

The Moche may have also held and tortured the victims for several weeks before sacrificing them, with the intent of deliberately drawing blood. Verano believes that some parts of the victim may have been eaten as well in ritual cannibalism. The sacrifices may have been associated with rites of ancestral renewal and agricultural fertility. Moche iconography features a figure which scholars have nicknamed the "Decapitator"; it is frequently depicted as a spider, but sometimes as a winged creature or a sea monster: together all three features symbolize land, water and air. When the body is included, the figure is usually shown with one arm holding a knife and another holding a severed head by the hair; it has also been depicted as "a human figure with a tiger's mouth and snarling fangs". The "Decapitator" is thought to have figured prominently in the beliefs surrounding the practice of sacrifice.

Denominations in numerals are in top left and lower right corners. Lower, centered, in words.

Comments:

Protective element are fibers, fluorescent green and orange.

The inti was introduced on 1 February 1985, replacing the sol which had suffered from high inflation. One inti was equivalent to 1,000 soles. Coins denominated in the new unit were put into circulation from May 1985 and banknotes followed in June of that year.