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100 Schilling 1954, Austria

in Krause book Number: 133a
Years of issue: 02.01.1954
Edition: --
Signatures: Generalrat: Dr. Stefan Wirlander, Präsident: Dr. Eugen Margaretha, Generaldirektor: Dr. Franz Bartsch
Serie: 1949 - 1954 Issues
Specimen of: 1953
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 175 х 84
Printer: Oesterreichische Banknoten und Sicherheitsdruck, Wien

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

100 Schilling 1954

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Unknown woman.

Avers:

100 Schilling 1954

Franz Grillparzer Franz Grillparzer Franz Grillparzer Franz Grillparzer

The engraving on banknote is, probably, made after the portrait of Franz Grillparzer by Friedrich (Fritz) Kriehuber.

Friedrich Kriehuber (sometimes Bedřich or Fritz Kriehuber; 7 June 1834 in Vienna – 12 October 1871 in Vienna) was an Austrian draftsman, lithographer and woodcutter.

He was the son of Josef Kriehuber, a well-known portrait painter and lithographer. Beginning in 1848, he attended the Academy of Fine Arts, Vienna. Initially, he was a landscape painter but later turned to portraits and, as an employee of his father, lithography.

Many of his works were published by Eduard Hallberger as illustrations for his magazine Über Land und Meer (Over Land and Sea). A year after Kriehuber's death, some of his lithographs appeared in "Das Jahr 1848. Geschichte der Wiener revolution" (a two volume history of the Vienna Uprising) by Heinrich Reschauer (b.1838) and Moritz Smets (1828-1890).

He suffered from chronic health problems for most of his life and died of a pulmonary disorder at the Austrian Hydrotherapy Institute, shortly after being appointed a Professor at the Theresian Military Academy.

Franz Seraphicus Grillparzer (15 January 1791 – 21 January 1872) was an Austrian writer who is chiefly known for his dramas. He also wrote the oration for Ludwig van Beethoven's funeral.

Franz Grillparzer was born in Vienna, Austria. His father, E.J. Grillparzer, was a severe pedant and a staunch upholder of the liberal traditions of the reign of Joseph II, and was an advocate of some standing. His mother, Anna Franziska, was a nervous, highly-strung woman who belonged to the well-known musical family of Sonnleithner.

His father destined Grillparzer for the legal profession, and, after a desultory education, Grillparzer entered the University of Vienna in 1807 as a student of jurisprudence. Two years later his father died, leaving the family in difficult circumstances. After obtaining his degree from the university in 1811, Franz first became a private tutor for a noble family; then in 1813, he entered the civil service as a clerk at the Imperial and Royal Hofkammer (Exchequer) in Austria. In 1821, he unsuccessfully applied to the position of scribe at the Imperial Library, and later that same year, he was relocated to the Ministry of Finance. In 1832, he became director of the archives at the Imperial and Royal Hofkammer, a position he held until his retirement in 1856. Grillparzer had little capacity for an official career and regarded his position merely as a means of independence.

From early youth, Grillparzer displayed a strong literary impulse. He devoted especial attention to the Spanish drama, and nearly all his writings bear marks of the influence of Calderón. His autobiography, which was written in 1853 and brings down the narrative of his life to 1836, is a model of clear, simple, and elegant prose, and it throws much interesting light both on his personal character and on the tendencies of his time. Among his posthumous writings are many fragments of literary, philosophic, and political criticism, all of them indicating a strong and independent spirit, not invariably just, but distinct, penetrating, and suggestive.

It is characteristic of him that he expresses extreme dislike of Hegel's philosophy on the ground that its terms are unintelligible. On the other hand, he gives evidence of careful and sympathetic study of Kant. Of modern literary critics, Gervinus was most repugnant to him, mainly because of the tendency of this writer to attribute moral aims to authors who created solely for art's sake. He rather maliciously says that Gervinus had one advantage and one disadvantage in writing his history of German literature, - the advantage of common sense, the disadvantage of knowing nothing of his subject.

Of a quiet contemplative nature, Grillparzer shunned general society. He never married. To a stranger he seemed cold and distant, but in conversation with any one he liked his real disposition revealed itself; his manner became animated, his eyes brightened, and a sarcastic but not ill-natured smile would play upon his lips. It was one of his sayings that the art of writing poetry can neither be taught nor learned, but he also held that inspiration will not visit a poet who neglects to make himself master of his subject. Hence before writing a play he worked hard, striving to comprehend the spirit of the age he wished to represent. He was exceedingly fond of travel, and at different times visited all the leading European countries.

After 1840, when his solitary comedy was rejected by the public, he almost passed from the memory of his contemporaries. Fortunately for him, his admirer Heinrich Laube settled in Vienna in 1849 as artistic director of the court theatre. By and by Laube reintroduced on the stage some of Grillparzer's forgotten works, and their success was immediate and profound. To his own surprise, Grillparzer became the most popular author of the day; he was ranked with Goethe and Schiller, and lauded as the national poet of Austria. On the eightieth anniversary of his birthday all classes from the court downwards united to do him honour; never, probably, did Vienna exert herself so much to prove her respect for a private citizen.

He was buried with an amount of ceremony that surpassed even the pomp displayed at Klopstock's funeral. He was originally buried in the Währinger Cemetery in Vienna, now known as Schubertpark. He now lies in Hietzinger Friedhof.

Leucanthemum vulgare Leucanthemum vulgareAt bottom is Leucanthemum vulgare, the ox-eye daisy or oxeye daisy.

Leucanthemum vulgare, the ox-eye daisy or oxeye daisy, is a widespread flowering plant native to Europe and the temperate regions of Asia and an introduced plant to North America, Australia and New Zealand. It is one of a number of family Asteraceae plants to be called a "daisy", and has the additional vernacular names common daisy, dog daisy and moon daisy.

L. vulgare is a typical grassland perennial wildflower, growing in a variety of plant communities including meadows and fields, under scrub and open-canopy forests, and in disturbed areas.

Leucanthemum is from the Ancient Greek λευκός (leukós, "white") and ἄνθος (ánthos, "flower"). Symbolic meaning of Oxeye daisy: Patience.

It is widely cultivated and available as a perennial flowering ornamental plant for gardens and designed meadow landscapes. It thrives in a wide range of conditions and can grow in sun to partial shade, and prefers damp soils. There are cultivars, such as "May Queen" which begins blooming in early spring.

On right side (vertically), presumably, are the leaves of lemon balm (please read reverse description).

In lower right corner is the feather of the writer and dramatic mask.

coat

Lower, more to left side, is the coat of arms of Austria.

The current coat of arms of Austria, albeit without the broken chains, has been in use by the Republic of Austria since 1919. Between 1934 and the German annexation in 1938 Austria used a different coat of arms, which consisted of a double-headed eagle. The establishment of the Second Republic in 1945 saw the return of the original (First Republic) arms, with broken chains added to symbolise Austria's liberation.

The blazon of the Federal Arms of the Republic of Austria reads:

Gules a fess Argent, escutcheon on the breast of an eagle displayed Sable, langued Gules, beaked Or, crowned with a mural crown of three visible merlons Or, armed Or, dexter talon holding sickle, sinister talon holding hammer, both talons shackled with chain broken Argent.

The symbols and emblems used in the Austrian arms are as follows:

The Eagle: Austria's sovereignty (introduced 1919)

The escutcheon Emblem of Austria (late Middle Ages, reintroduced 1915)

The mural crown: The middle class (introduced 1919)

The sickle: Agriculture (introduced 1919)

The Hammer: Industry (introduced 1919)

The broken chains: Liberation from National Socialist dictatorship (added 1945).

Denominations in numerals are 3 times, in words centered.

Revers:

100 Schilling 1954

Dürnstein DürnsteinOverlooking on Dürnstein from Vogelbergsteig, Northwest View (Blick auf Dürnstein vom Vogelbergsteig (Nordwestansicht)).

Dürnstein is a small town on the Danube river in the Krems-Land district, in the Austrian state of Lower Austria. It is one of the most visited tourist destinations in the Wachau region and also a well-known wine growing area. The municipality consists of the Katastralgemeinden Dürnstein, Oberloiben and Unterloiben.

The town gained its name from the medieval castle, Burgruine Dürnstein, which overlooked it. The castle was called "Duerrstein" or "Dürrstein", from the German duerr/dürr meaning "dry" and Stein, "stone". The castle was dry because it was situated on a rocky hill, high above the damp conditions of the Danube at the base of the hill, and it was built of stone.

Dürnstein was first mentioned in 1192, when, in the castle above the town, King Richard I of England was held captive by Leopold V, Duke of Austria after their dispute during the Third Crusade. Richard the Lionheart had personally offended Leopold the Virtuous by casting down his standard from the walls at the Battle of Acre, and the duke suspected that King Richard ordered the murder of his cousin Conrad of Montferrat in Jerusalem. In consequence Pope Celestine III excommunicated Leopold for capturing a fellow crusader. The duke finally gave the custody of the king to Emperor Henry VI, who imprisoned Richard at Trifels Castle. Dürnstein Castle was almost completely destroyed by the troops of the Swedish Empire under Field Marshal Lennart Torstenson in 1645.

Dürnstein Abbey (Stift Dürnstein) was established in 1410 by Canons Regular from Třeboň and from 1710 rebuilt in a Baroque style according to plans by Joseph Munggenast, Jakob Prandtauer and Matthias Steinl. The monastery was dissolved by order of Emperor Joseph II in 1788 and fell to the Herzogenburg Priory.

During the War of the Third Coalition the Battle of Dürenstein was fought nearby on November 11, 1805.

DürnsteinIn the foreground is seen Augustinian monastery.

The monastery was founded in 1410, until the end of the XVIII century was reconstructed several times. Here is the church of Marie-Himmelfart the picturesque tower of blue and white stone - one of the jewels of the Austrian Baroque and symbol of the city. Construction of the church was completed in 1725.

300 years after the founding of the monastery, in 1710, Hieronymus Übelbacher was elected as its rector. The building was in poor condition, and so he decided to rebuild it in the Baroque style. Interior and exterior design are the works of architects and builders Joseph Munggenast, Jakob Prandtauer and Matthias Steinl. When Durnstein acquired a Baroque appearance, the religion, science and culture were like linked together. The most striking is a blue-white tower of the collegiate church, which was restored to its original color.

The tower is covered with precious reliefs of Christ's suffering. On its crown is the famous Cross: in this sign Christ has conquered death and suffering. Under cross are evangelicals, as his executors. Four of the obelisk in the tower provide a balanced picture of the Apostles. Immediately there are witnesses of Christ, witnesses of his life, suffering and resurrection.

On right side (vertically) is the grapevine.

Melissa officinalis Melissa officinalisOn left side (vertically) is Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis).

Melissa officinalis, known as lemon balm, balm, common balm, or balm mint, is a perennial herbaceous plant in the mint family Lamiaceae, native to south-central Europe, North Africa, the Mediterranean region, and Central Asia.

It grows to 70-150 cm. (28-59 in.) tall. The leaves have a gentle lemon scent, related to mint. During summer, small white flowers full of nectar appear. It is not to be confused with bee balm (which is genus Monarda). The white flowers attract bees, hence the genus name Melissa (Greek for 'honey bee'). Its flavour comes from citronellal (24%), geranial (16%), linalyl acetate (12%) and caryophyllene (12%).

Lemon balm is often used as a flavouring in ice cream and herbal teas, both hot and iced, often in combination with other herbs such as spearmint. It is also frequently paired with fruit dishes or candies. It can be used in fish dishes and is the key ingredient in lemon balm pesto.

In the traditional Austrian medicine, M. officinalis leaves have been prescribed for internal (as tea) or external (essential oil) application for the treatment of disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, nervous system, liver, and bile. It is also a common addition to peppermint tea, mostly because of its complementing flavor.

Lemon balm is the main ingredient of Carmelite Water, which is still for sale in German pharmacies.

Lemon balm essential oil is very popular in aromatherapy. The essential oil is commonly codistilled with lemon oil, citronella oil, or other oils.

Denominations in numerals are 3 times, in words centered, at the top.

Comments:

Designer: Josef Franz Renner.

Born in 1886 in Graslitz (Czech Republic), died in 1957 in Vienna.

The painter and graphic artist. He studied at the School of Applied Arts in Vienna. Student of Koloman Moser. Professor of graphics. He created many magnificent landscapes, portraits, pictures, wall hangings, posters, diplomas and stamps. Worked as an illustrator for newspapers in Germany and Austria.

Reverse engraver: Alfred Nefe (1923 -) studied engraving under, among others, Professor Hans Ranzoni. Nefe's career at the Austrian National Bank began in 1948, and ended with his retirement in 1978. Created many well-known post stamps of the Austrian Republic.

Obverse engraver: Rudolf Toth (1918 - 2009). Austrian engraver, made many sets of stamps and some banknotes.