header Notes Collection

5 Mark 1991, Germany

in Krause book Number: 37
Years of issue: 27.10.1992
Edition: --
Signatures: Bundesbank Präsident: Prof. Helmut Schlesinger (01.08.1991-31.09.1993), Vizepräsident: Prof. Hans Tietmeyer (01.08.1991-30.09.1993)
Serie: Fourth Series
Specimen of: 01.08.1991
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 122 х 62
Printer: Bundesdruckerei GmbH, Berlin

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

5 Mark 1991




Bettina von Arnim. The portrait was made in beginning of XIX century by Bettina's husband - Ludwig Achim von Arnim.


5 Mark 1991

Bettina von Arnim

The engraving on banknote is made after the portrait of Bettina von Arnim (mirror view). Made in beginning of XIX century by Bettina's husband - Ludwig Achim von Arnim. Today it belongs to the museum of Arnim's - Wiepersdorf castle (Schloss Wiepersdorf), where they used to live.

Bettina von Arnim, neé Brentano, was born on April 4, 1785 in Frankfurt am Main. The Brentanos, who were originally from northern Italy, are counted among the most important families in German cultural life. Bettina’s father, Peter Anton Brentano, was an envoy of the Elector of Trier. Her mother, Maximiliane, neé La Roche, was a childhood friend of Goethe’s. From the time she was 12 after the early death of her parents, Bettina lived in Offenbach with her grandmother, the writer, Sophie von La Roche.

In 1802 Bettina met her brother’s friend Achim von Arnim for the first time; nine years later she married him. In the meantime Bettina met Tieck, Goethe and Beethoven, among others, which had a significant impact on her and her views on art.

After the birth of her first two sons – the couple had seven children – Bettina began her life as the mistress of the manor in Wiepersdorf.

However, in 1817 she and the children returned to Berlin where she actively participated in the social and intellectual life of the Prussian capital and championed the poor and the politically prosecuted.

Although the literary pair lived separated from one another for the most part, the lively correspondence between Berlin and Wiepersdorf provides valuable insights into this unusual marriage as wall as into country and city life at the beginning of the XIX century.

After Achim von Arnim’s death Bettina published his work and commenced her own literary activities. She gained a reputation through her epistolary novels "Goethes Briefwechsel mit einem Kinde" ("Goethe’s Correspondence with a Child"), "Die Günderode" ("Günderode") and "Der Frühlingskranz" ("The Spring Wreath"), wrote together with her brother - Clements Brentano, and the work "Dies Buch gehört dem König" ("This Book belongs to the King"). She enjoyed close friendships with Rahel Varnhagen, Robert Schumann, Hermann Fürst Pückler-Muskau and Friedrich Schleiermacher.

Bettina von Arnim died in Berlin on January 20, 1859 and is buried in Wiepersdorf. Her social commitment and openmindedness, her publishing activities and her own literary endeavors make her one of the most important women of the XIX century.

Ludwig Achim and Bettina von Arnim.

Carl Joachim Ludwig von Arnim was born in Berlin on January 26, 1781. His father was the royal Prussian chamberlain Joachim Erdmann von Arnim (1741-1804) and his mother, Amalie Caroline, neé Labes (1761-1781), died shortly after his birth. Achim and his older brother Carl Otto grew up with their grandmother, Baroness Caroline von Labes (1730-1810) on the estate Zernikow and in Berlin. After the death of their father in 1804 the two brothers inherited the Bärwalde and Wiepersdorf estates.

During his study of law in Halle and Göttingen (1798-1801) Achim von Arnim met the writers Ludwig Tieck and Clemens Brentano. After his studies he turned to literature and began to publish. He also undertook extended educational travels throughout Europe with his brother Carl Otto. At the home of his writer friend Clemens Brentano in Frankfurt am Main he met Brentano’s younger sister, Bettina, whom he married in 1811.

Together with Clemens Brentano he published the folksong collection "Des Knaben Wunderhorn" ["The Youth’s Magic Horn"], which he followed with numerous poems, novellas, novels and plays of his own.

Ludwig Achim von Arnim took over the management of the Bärwalde and Wiepersdorf estates in early 1814 and he and Bettina, together with their two sons, Freimund and Siegmund, moved from Berlin to Wiepersdorf where they received visits by his brother-in-law Clemens Brentano, Friedrich Carl von Savigny and Wilhelm Grimm.

Although Bettina returned to Berlin three years later, Achim remained in Wiepersdorf as master of the manor and author until his early and unexpected death on January 21, 1831. It was here that he wrote his well-known novel "Die Kronenwächter" ("Guardians of the Crown").

His grave is located in the family cemetery next to the Wiepersdorf church. (

On background are:

Schloss Wiepersdorf

At the bottom is partial view of farmed by her husband castle Wiepersdorf and a cornucopia symbolizing their diverse intellectual interests.

The Künstlerhaus Schloss Wiepersdorf is a literary institute in Germany housed in a stately manor house. Originally the manor house was the home of Ludwig Achim von Arnim and Bettina von Arnim, well-known figures from Germany's Romantic Period. After their deaths the future role the manor house was unclear, but eventually it was decided to turn it into a literary institute, where leading scholars and writers would receive grants for extended stays, where they could have creative exchanges with other scholars and writers.

Schloss Wiepersdorf located in village Wiepersdorf, community Niederer Fläming, southeast of Jüterbog (Land Brandenburg).

The Wiepersdorf castle takes in the history of the arts, especially literature, a special position in Germany.

As a former resident of Achim von Arnim and Bettina von Arnim, the eminent poet couple of romance, it has a long tradition as a place of intellectual exchange. After an eventful history, 2006, assumed the task of the German Foundation for Monument Protection, with the support of the State of Brandenburg and the federal government permanently to maintain the house as an artist house.

This involves mainly three aspects: preserve - promote - mediate. In Von Arnim Museum is reminiscent of the poet couple Achim and Bettina von Arnim and documents the history of the house. In the traditional, monumental artist housework stays by artists of all disciplines from Germany and abroad are eligible for scholarships. Public events, readings, concerts, conferences and exhibitions in the Künstlerhaus Schloss Wiepersdorf are an invitation to the audience to exciting dialogue on topical issues of art, literature and the humanities.

The Royal Prussian chamberlain Joachim Erdmann von Arnim (1741-1804) bought in 1780, the little country Bärwalde with Wiepersdorf and other manors. Joachim Erdmann von Arnim came in from the mansion to make structural changes and linked it by tower building with the side wings. It was created by a sweeping assembly.

On 26 January 1781 the second child, the future poet Ludwig Achim von Arnim, who was born in Berlin. In February his mother died as a result of childbirth. Achim and his brother Carlotto grew at the maternal grandmother on in Berlin. After his father's death in 1804, both brothers were heirs of the little country.

Ludwig Achim von Arnim married in 1811 Bettina Brentano (1785-1859), the sister of his friend and fellow poet Clemens Brentano. 1814 both attracted to the Good Wiepersdorf. Achim shifted the farmyard, which was located in front of the castle, to the south side and let him build greater there.

While it took Bettina after three years back to Berlin, Ludwig Achim remained throughout his life as a squire and poets in Wiepersdorf. From mutual visits aside, both lived separately. This spatial separation was followed by an extensive correspondence, the cultural and historical events and village life at the beginning of the 19th century records.

Ludwig Achim von Arnim died on 21 January 1831 in Wiepersdorf. He left seven children, of whom the eldest, free mouth, the management of goods took over. 1848, the first grandson of the poet couple, who later became a painter Achim von Arnim was born-Bärwalde, who later took over the goods and in turn had to make extensive changes to the house and garden. Thus arose in 1877 on the northern part of the house on the remains of the demolished north wing his spacious studio. It is the largest room of the house, with high ceiling, which he, together with doors painted artfully. Later he left the balcony and the semi-circular terrace decaying grow. The wide staircase with solid balustrade and vases ends in a sunken parterre with Mittelbeet. South of the garden parterre originated 1888/89 the Orangerie. Sandstone figures, statues of the Greco-Roman mythology and large vases, which brought the painter of his trips to Italy, giving the park a cheerful southern flair. Before the big studio window standing in a semicircle set up five grotesque dwarf figures whose origin is not known. At the western part of the garden parterre, a landscaped garden followed. House and park are now a protected monument.

The former small church, which is located in the northern part of the front castle park was 1894/95 also designed by the artist Achim von Arnim-Bärwalde rebuilt and took its present form. The design of the family cemetery at the church was carried out according to his plans. There rest the poet couple and some of their descendants. Today the church is a parish church and can be visited only during religious services or tours.

View of the historic center of Berlin, where Bettina von Arnim lived and married Ludwig Achim von Arnim.

More specifically could be seen: Fridrihsverder church (Friedrichswerdersche Kirche) and the Schauspiel- oder Konzerthaus Berlin.

Konzerthaus Berlin

Top, right is The Konzerthaus Berlin. It is a concert hall situated on the Gendarmenmarkt square in the central Mitte district of Berlin housing the German orchestra Konzerthausorchester Berlin. Built as a theatre from 1818 to 1821 under the name of the Schauspielhaus Berlin, later also known as the Theater am Gendarmenmarkt and Komödie, its usage changed to a concert hall after the Second World War and its name changed to its present one in 1994.

The building's predecessor, the National-Theater in the Friedrichstadt suburb, was destroyed by fire in 1817. It had been designed by Carl Gotthard Langhans and inaugurated on January 1, 1802.

The new hall was designed by Karl Friedrich Schinkel between 1818 and 1821.

The new Königliches Schauspielhaus was inaugurated on June 18, 1821 with the acclaimed premiere of Carl Maria von Weber's opera Der Freischütz. Other works that have premiered at the theatre include Undine by E. T. A. Hoffmann in 1816. During the 1848 Revolution its main auditorium housed the Prussian National Assembly for several weeks in September, with the Gendarmenmarkt a major arena of political events.

Notable premieres at the theatre during this period included Penthesilea by Heinrich von Kleist in 1876, and The Assumption of Hannele by Gerhart Hauptmann in 1893.

After World War I the Schauspielhaus reopened under the name of Preußisches Staatstheater Berlin in October 1919. Under the direction of Leopold Jessner it soon became one of the leading theatres of the Weimar Republic, a tradition ambivalently continued by his successor Gustaf Gründgens after the Nazi takeover in 1933, including his famous staging of Goethe's Faust and the premiere of Gerhart Hauptmann's tragedy Iphigenie in Delphi in 1941.

Severely damaged by Allied bombing and the Battle of Berlin the building was rebuilt from 1977 onwards and reopened as the concert hall of the Berliner Sinfonie-Orchester in 1984 with a gala concert. The exterior, including many of the sculptures of composers by Christian Friedrich Tieck and Balthasar Jacob Rathgeber, is a faithful reconstruction of Schinkel's designs, while the interior was adapted in a Neoclassical style meeting the conditions of the altered use. The great hall is equipped with a notable four-manual pipe organ built by Jehmlich Orgelbau Dresden in 1984. The organ has four manuals and pedal, 74 stops and 5,811 pipes. In 1994 the venue was renamed the "Konzerthaus Berlin".

Acoustically, the hall was considered to be amongst the five best concert venues in the world for music and/or opera, as of 2004.

Friedrichswerdersche Kirche

Top, left is the Friedrichswerder Church (German: Friedrichswerdersche Kirche, French: Temple du Werder) was the first Neo-Gothic church built in Berlin, Germany. It was designed by an architect better known for his Neoclassical architecture, Karl Friedrich Schinkel, and was built under his direction, 1824-1831.

The building is maintained by the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation and is part of Berlin State Museums' ensemble. In late 2012, the building was closed indefinitely, owing to structural damage suffered from nearby building activity. Previously it held Berlin National Gallery's collection of nineteenth-century German sculpture, showing works of Johann Gottfried Schadow, Karl Friedrich Schinkel and Christian Daniel Rauch, among others. On the upper floor was an exhibition of the work and life of Karl Friedrich Schinkel. These artworks have been removed and have not been on display since.


On banknote's background are the envelopes and opened books.

Lower, left, are the Braille symbols for visually impaired.

Wiepersdorf Wiepersdorf

We, with my wife, visited the Bettina von Arnim house museum, in Wiepersdorf, July 1, 2018.

However, it is strictly forbidden to photograph photos in the museum building and the woman-supervisors watch vigilantly :), so I put the photo not on the background of the copy of the portrait of Bettina, which is inside the building, but on the background of the museum building itself, outside.

Denominations in numerals are lower and on right side, in words on right side (vertically).


5 Mark 1991

Brandenburger Tor Brandenburger Tor

On foreground is the Brandenburg Gate (Brandenburger Tor).

The Brandenburg Gate (German: Brandenburger Tor) is an 18th-century neoclassical triumphal arch in Berlin, and one of the best-known landmarks of Germany. It is built on the site of a former city gate that marked the start of the road from Berlin to the town of Brandenburg an der Havel.

It is located in the western part of the city center of Berlin within Mitte, at the junction of Unter den Linden and Ebertstraße, immediately west of the Pariser Platz. One block to the north stands the Reichstag building that houses the German parliament (Bundestag). The gate is the monumental entry to Unter den Linden, the renowned boulevard of linden trees, which led directly to the royal City Palace of the Prussian monarchs.

It was commissioned by King Frederick William II of Prussia as a sign of peace and built by architect Carl Gotthard Langhans from 1788 to 1791. Having suffered considerable damage in World War II, the Brandenburg Gate was fully restored from 2000 to 2002 by the Stiftung Denkmalschutz Berlin (Berlin Monument Conservation Foundation).

During the post-war Partition of Germany, the gate was isolated and inaccessible immediately next to the Berlin Wall. The area around the gate was featured most prominently in the media coverage of the tearing down of the wall in 1989, and the subsequent German reunification in 1990.

Throughout its existence, the Brandenburg Gate was often a site for major historical events and is today considered a symbol of the tumultuous history of Europe and Germany, but also of European unity and peace.

More to the left is a seal of German Bundesbank.

In lower right corner are the signatures of important personalities, with which Bettina von Arnim was standing in correspondence, in the context of an envelope. The signatures belongs to: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Clemens Brentano, Christian Johann Heinrich Heine, Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Rahel Antonie Friederike Varnhagen, Wilhelm IV. Heinrich and Karoline Friederike Louise Maximiliane von Günderrode.

As conceived by the designer, Reinhold Gerstetter, among signatures should also be a signature of Karl Marx, which had a good communication with Bettina von Arnim, but the German Bundesbank has removed it from the final draft.

The back of the first draft was a designed by Bettina von Arnim Goethe Monument. However, the bill should not be made "through the back door" to Goethe banknote. After all, there was, among other things his signature on the ultimately unrealized banknote. The second design (with a flower wreath, as he was presented to her (with Clemens Brentano) book "The Spring Wreath") was discarded for aesthetic reasons. At the end on the note appeared the Brandenburg Gate, which was built in her lifetime and consecrated. Also, it was the symbol of German unity. Hence the five-mark bill became the all-German banknote.

Denominations in numerals are lower and on left side, in words on left side (vertically).


The signatures on banknote belong to:

Helmut SchlesingerHelmut Schlesinger (04.09.1924).

Hans TietmeyerHans Tietmeyer (18 August 1931).

Reinhold GerstetterDesigner - Reinhold Gerstetter.

Reinhold Gerstetter (October 18, 1945 in Leonberg in Baden-Württemberg) is a German graphic artist and designer. The most famous work in Germany is the last series of DM banknotes, which he designed, as well as the revision of the second Euro Series, the so-called "Euro-Series".

Gerstetter studied graphic design at the State Academy of Fine Arts in Stuttgart and later worked in advertising in London, Berlin and Haifa. From 1979 to 2002 he worked for the Bundesdruckerei. There he designed as a chief designer behördliches graphic design, stamps and banknotes (including for Israel, Bolivia and Peru). 1987 Gerst Etters design was chosen as the basis for the fourth and final series of banknotes of the German mark, which was from 1990 to early 2002 in circulation. A short time later, he also won the design competition of the Banco de España, which published four banknote values ​​from 1992, based on Gerst Etters designs. Although his designs submitted for the first series of banknotes of the common currency were not selected euro by the jury for the implementation, however, he was entrusted with the revision of the second series of euro banknotes that came into circulation as of May 2013.

His daughter, Avitall, is Germany's first female Jewish cantor.

Fourth Series of DM.

On March 19, 1981, the members of the Central Bank Council of the Deutsche Bundesbank decided to issue a new banknote series. She had become necessary due to technological progress, by the falsification of the old notes had become ever easier. Also a new series for the automatic payment transactions would be more appropriate. It took almost ten years, until the first two banknote values ​​were put into circulation on 1 October 1990 levels. This was around the 100- and 200-mark note. The latter denomination was introduced in this series of banknotes.

When designing the bank notes and the selection of the design elements were a lot of decisions to make. As early as the preliminary to the new series portraits were determined as the main subject. It should "be chosen brilliant portraits of personalities of German history in the fields of art, literature, music, economics, science and technology". In addition, the rear in conjunction should be about the person depicted on the front. Further, the primary colors of the note values ​​should remain unchanged and the word banknote stand on every bill in Gothic script.

People Picker.

A committee, consisting of historians Karl Otmar von Aretin, Knut Borchardt and Horst Fuhrmann, was commissioned to define the persons who should appear on the banknotes. The choice was between about 70 to 80 people. Here to "Top Artists" (z. B. Goethe, Schiller, Dürer) has been omitted. Likewise, retired people from whose expellees affiliation was unclear or a provocation in creed or political manner could mean (for example, Martin Luther, Karl Marx) or who had rendered her work mainly abroad, such as Jacques Offenbach.

When selecting the people should pay attention to balance in terms of gender, religion, national origin and work area. It should, if possible, three, but at least be represented two female characters in the series. However, the selection was very limited to female personalities. The aim was to show women who have created an independent work and not in the shade close to them were men (Charlotte von Stein, Charlotte von Kalb). However, such women were very rare until the XIX century. Therefore, the Panel chose to begin with the female figures, so not limitations on the field of activity, origin or confession had to be considered.

One of the requirements for the design was that the people viewed by the observer, the left should look towards banknote center. This meant that the provided portraits for five, ten, twenty, fifty and two hundred-Mark banknotes had to be mirrored. As with the Brothers Grimm two people should be ready to give them the largest banknote was reserved because of the large space requirement. Otherwise, men and women should alternate. The rest of the allocation of person and note value, however, was random and does not constitute a rating of persons.

Actually, Maria Sibylla Merian was earmarked for the 100- and Clara Schumann for the 500-mark note. However, only an artistically inferior etching by Johann Rudolf Schellenberg was for the portrait of Maria Sibylla Merian available, as in the original template doubts about the authenticity arose. Therefore, the Bundesbank held a design competition in order to get a high-quality master of this etching, which was the basis for the portrait on the bill later. Since the 100-DM-note should appear as one of the first, the people were replaced because of these difficulties.

Selection of the winning design.

Bundesdruckerei (represented by Rudolf Gerhardt, who had already designed the bench marks (BBK-II) for West Berlin), Ernst: For the design competition, which ran from 1 January to 30 June 1987, four graphic designers were by the Bundesbank in charge disciples, Johann Müller and Adrian Arthur Senger. According to the judgment of an expert commission consisting of historians, designers and graphic designers as well as a sociologist, corresponded to only one series to the high expectations. However, this reminded too much of the Swiss franc, so that she did not come into question. Thus, it would have been necessary actually a new design competition, which would have delayed the project by at least one year. But since Bundesdruckerei did submit two drafts, which was not accepted by the Bundesbank, was the draft by the then chief graphic designer of Bundesdruckerei, Reinhold Gerstetter, yet unseen in custody of the Bundesbank. After review by the Panel of this design was selected eventually as a basis for the new banknote series. The experts wrote: "The art expert panel is unanimously of the view that the here [...] compiled draft properties largely meet the requirements [...]. The art expert panel may recommend in this sense, the Deutsche Bundesbank, to make the present proposals for the basis of a new banknote series."

Configuration of the front sides.

The to be seen on the front towns pictures were an idea Gerst Etters. In his designs were to be seen in some cases striking modern building of the respective cities. However, the draft of the city of Frankfurt led to the decision to represent only historical buildings. The reason given was that the office towers of Deutsche Bank dominated the design and the Bundesbank should not be suspected to advertise for a private company.

In 1988, it was now necessary to select the appropriate city for each person. The design of the graphic looked for Paul Ehrlich Bad Homburg, his place of death, before. However, his work was held in Berlin and Frankfurt mostly. Frankfurt had Gerstetter however provided for Clara Schumann, who spent her final years there. After deciding on the introduction of the 5-DM-bill with the portrait of Bettina von Arnim was soon clear map to this the city of Berlin. Because each city should appear on the banknotes only once, only came for Paul Ehrlich thus Frankfurt in question. For Clara Schumann, the city of Leipzig was chosen because Leipzig was not just her birth, but because they also had their first successes there later.

Due to the events in the years 1989/1990, the decision for Leipzig proved a stroke of luck; because the banknote series was originally intended only for West Germany and West Berlin. But as the new federal states were represented with a city which also still has a special symbolic meaning: Here is the first Monday demonstrations took place that led to the dissolution of the GDR and the reunification of Germany.

Design of backs.

Reinhold Gerstetter looked for the back of the 1000-Mark certificate as the main subject is a figure from the fairy tale The Star Money before. However, the Brothers Grimm should, despite their extensive collection of fairy tales, can not be reduced to the fairy tale, as they have rendered outstanding services to the issuing of the German dictionary much about the German language. Thus, the dictionary was the main motif, and the Sterntaler "wandered" into the White Field.

Also in the design of the back was done with great attention to detail. So, even the background pattern a reference to the person who is pictured on the front. A penalty for the forgery of bank notes was no longer available in the fourth series.