header Notes Collection

20 Mark 1993, Germany

in Krause book Number: 39b
Years of issue: 01.10.1993
Signatures: Bundesbank Präsident: Hans Tietmeyer (1993-1999), Vizepräsident: Johann Wilhelm Gaddum (1993-1998)
Serie: Fourth Series
Specimen of: 01.08.1991
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 138 х 68
Printer: Bundesdruckerei GmbH, Berlin

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

20 Mark 1993




The portrait of Annette von Droste-Hülshoff. Made in 1820 by German painter Wilhelm Stiehl.


20 Mark 1993

Annette von Droste-Hülshoff

The engraving on banknote is made after the portrait of Annette von Droste-Hülshoff (mirror view). Made in 1820 by German painter Wilhelm Stiehl. Today it belongs to the museum of Annette von Droste-Hülshoff - "Princely House" ("Fürstenhäusle") in Meersburg, where she lived long time till her death.

Anna Elisabeth Franziska Adolphine Wilhelmine Louise Maria, Freiin von Droste zu Hülshoff, known as Annette von Droste-Hülshoff (January 10 or 12 1797 – May 24, 1848), was a XIX-century German writer and composer. She was one of the most important German poets and author of the novella "Die Judenbuche".

Annette von Droste-Hülshoff was born at the castle of Burg Hülshoff (now a part of Havixbeck) in the Prince-Bishopric of Münster. Her family, the Barons Droste zu Hülshoff belongs to the old Catholic aristocracy of Westphalia. Her father Clemens August von Droste zu Hülshoff (1760-1826) was a learned man who was interested in ancient history and languages, ornithology, botany, music and the supernatural. Her mother Therese Luise (1772-1853) came from another aristocratic Westphalian family, the Barons von Haxthausen. Annette was the second of four children: she had an elder sister Maria Anna (nicknamed "Jenny", 1795-1859) and two younger brothers, Werner Konstantin (1798-1867) and Ferdinand (1800-1829). Annette was born one month prematurely and only saved by the intervention of a nurse. She suffered from problems with her health throughout her life, including headaches and eye troubles.

Droste was educated by private tutors in ancient languages, French, natural history, mathematics and music (she inherited considerable musical talent from her father). She began to write as a child; 50 poems written between 1804 and 1814 have been preserved. Droste's maternal grandfather Werner Adolf von Haxthausen had remarried after the death of his first wife (Annette's grandmother) in 1772 and built himself a new castle, Schloss Bökerhof, in the village of Bökendorf, Paderborn. Here his sons from his second marriage, Werner and August, had formed an intellectual circle. They were in contact with such celebrated cultural figures as the Brothers Grimm, Clemens Brentano, Friedrich Schlegel Adele and Johanna Schopenhauer. Droste visited the castle frequently and made the acquaintance of Wilhelm Grimm. She and her sister contributed folk tales from Westphalia to the Grimms' famous collection of fairy stories. However, neither Grimm nor her step-uncles gave any encouragement to the young girl's literary ambitions. The only literary figure to recognise Droste's precocious talent was Anton Matthias Sprickmann (1749-1833), whom she first met in 1812. Sprickmann was the founder of the theatre in Münster and had known important 18th-century poets such as Matthias Claudius and Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock. Droste trusted Sprickmann's judgement and showed him many of her early works, including the unfinished tragedy Berta oder die Alpen ("Berta, or The Alps", 1813). Other examples of her juvenilia are the tale in verse Walter (1818) and a novel Ledwina (begun in 1819 but never completed).

In 1819-1820, Droste spent a year with the Haxthausens at Bökerhof, interrupted only by a stay at the nearby spa town of Bad Driburg, where she hoped to find a cure for her health problems. Here she became romantically involved with Heinrich Straube (1794-1847), a law student with literary interests, who was a friend of her step-uncle August. What happened next is unclear, but it appears that some members of the Haxthausen family, led by Annette's step-aunt Anna (who was in fact four years her junior), disapproved of the relationship because Straube was a middle-class Protestant, and they devised a scheme to put an end to it. While Straube was away pursuing his legal studies at the University of Göttingen, they persuaded another young man with literary ambitions, August von Arnswaldt, who came from an upper-class Protestant family, to pretend to pay court to Annette. At first flattered by Arnswaldt's attentions, she gave some indications she was in love with him, before telling him she really loved Straube. By this time it was too late, however, as Arnswaldt had all the evidence he needed. He travelled to Göttingen and told Straube of Annette's behaviour. The two men wrote a joint letter (which has not been preserved), breaking off all contact with her. She never saw either man again. A few years later, Arnswaldt married Anna von Haxthausen, the ringleader of the intrigue. Straube became a lawyer in Kassel and married in 1824. When he died in 1847, a lock of Droste's hair was found among his possessions. The affair was a catastrophe for Droste and damaged her future marriage prospects. Shocked by the role the Haxthausens had played in the intrigue, she refused to visit Bökerhof for the next 18 years.

Droste's earliest poems are derivative and conventional but in 1820 her work began to show marked originality when she embarked on a cycle of religious poems, Das geistliche Jahr ("The Spiritual Year"). Droste intended to write one poem for each Sunday and Feast Day of the church year and the cycle was meant to please her devout grandmother, but when Droste had completed 25 poems, she realised they were too personal and showed too many traces of spiritual doubt, so she shelved the work until 1839 when a friend persuaded her to complete the series. Even then she did not publish the poems and they were only offered to the public posthumously in 1851.

When her father died in 1826 she moved with her mother and sister to a small country house near Hülshoff called Rüschhaus. Here she led a constricted, monotonous existence, broken only by a few trips to the Rhine and Bonn. She composed poetry, but not prolifically. In 1834 her sister Jenny married Joseph von Laßberg, a specialist in medieval German poetry. The following summer, Annette and her mother travelled to Laßberg's castle Eppishausen in the Swiss Alps. She was inspired by the scenery and on friendly terms with Laßberg, but neither he nor his friends appreciated modern literature and Droste's hopes that they might help her to publish her work came to nothing.

Droste now entrusted the publication of her first book to two friends, Christoph Bernhard Schlüter and Wilhelm Junkmann. They had little experience of the literary world and chose the local Münster publisher Aschendorff. Droste would have preferred a non-regional publisher rather than a Westphalian one as Westphalia had a reputation as a cultural backwater and few people bought books there. The collection appeared in 1838 in a print-run of 500 copies, of which only 74 were sold. It contained three long narrative poems (Das Hospiz auf dem großem Saint-Bernard, Das Vermächtnis des Arztes and Die Schlacht in Loener Bruch) and a handful of lyrics. Although they were issued under the name "Annette Elisabeth von D.H.", her family did not approve. Droste found the failure of her book "humiliating."

On background are:

Láurus nóbilis

The branch of Laurus nobilis.

Laurus nobilis is an aromatic evergreen tree or large shrub with green, glossy leaves, native to the Mediterranean region. It is one of the plants used for bay leaf seasoning in cooking. It is known as bay laurel, sweet bay, bay tree (esp. United Kingdom), true laurel, Grecian laurel, laurel tree or simply laurel. Laurus nobilis figures prominently in classical Greek, Roman, and Biblical culture.

Worldwide, many other kinds of plants in diverse families are also called "bay" or "laurel", generally due to similarity of foliage or aroma to Laurus nobilis, and the full name is used for the California bay laurel (Umbellularia), also in the family Lauraceae.

On background is historical view at Meersburg, where Annette von Droste-Hülshoff lived for a long time.

Mersburg (German: Meersburg) is a city on Lake Constance, in the German federal state of Baden-Württemberg.

Mersburg, although it is a small town, may well be considered the pearl of Lake Constance, and offers tourists not only walk along the picturesque streets of a fully preserved medieval settlement, but also many museums. First of all, the Old Castle, the New Palace, the museum of the poetess Annette von Droste-Hülshof in the Princes' House, the winemaking museum, the city history museum, the Bible museum, the private airship museum and the carpet weaving museum and the city art gallery deserve interest. In addition, in the tourist harbor it is worth taking a look at the so-called "Magic Column" by sculptor Peter Lenk. For lovers of hiking and cycling, convenient paths are laid in the outskirts of the city, usually leading along the coast and allowing you to enjoy the natural beauties of Lake Constance region.

More exactly we can see:

Meersburg Meersburg

The market square with Upper gate and the Hotel "zum Bären" (Marktplatz mit Obertor und Gasthaus "zum Bären"). The view was taken from south side.


Top, left is The Meersburg Castle.

Meersburg Castle (German: Burg Meersburg), also known as the Alte Burg (English: Old Castle), in Meersburg on Lake Constance in Baden-Württemberg, Germany is the oldest inhabited castle in Germany. The central tower was first built during the VII century, though the original structure is no longer visible. Burg Meersburg is known as the old castle, in the reference to the neighboring 18th century New Castle.

There are two theories about the construction of the Meersburg. The first is that the Merovingian king Dagobert I built the Dagobertturm (Dagobert's Tower), the central keep of the Meersburg, in 630. Around 630, Dagobert was in the Lake Constance region working on the Christianization of the Alamanni. This theory is based on a source from 1548, and was supported by Joseph von Laßberg who lived in the castle during the XIX century. A charter issued by Frederick Barbarossa on 27 November 1155, citing older, questionable sources, mentions that the boundaries of the Bishopric of Constance were established by Dagobert himself indicating that Dagobert was personally involved in establishing rulers in the region.

The second theory is that the castle was built in the early XII century, and based on the name of the tower an association with the earlier Merovingian king was created. It is based on the observation that in the Lake Constance region there are no records of any castles being founded in the VII century, but in the XII century to early 13th century many castles were built in the region. The Merdesburch Castle was first mentioned in 1113, which implies a construction date before the early XII century.

The stones at the base of the Dagobertturm are very large roughly squared stones that according to architectural history could date from either the VII century or from the 12th century to early XIII century. Because the stones could have come from either era, it is not clear which theory is correct. However, similarities between the Meersburg and other 12th-century castles have been noted.

Joseph von Laßberg also presents the theory that the tower was built on the site of an earlier destroyed castle. He states that the castle was destroyed by Duke Gotfrid of Alemannia who was at war with Dagobert's successor and rebuilt 80 years later by Charles Martel. From 730 until 911 the Meersburg was a Carolingian castle and owned by the Counts of Linzgau, but administered by the Counts of Buchhorn. Following the extinction of the Buchhorn line, it would have passed to the Counts of Welf. A contract between the Counts of Welf and the Bishopric of Constance indicated that the Meersburg would be given to the Bishopric if the count died without any male heirs. It appears that the Welfs and the Bishporic had close ties, as Bishop Conrad was of Welf descent.

The castle may have been owned by several different lords during the following centuries. It appears that the castle was owned by the Hohenstaufens for a while, because in 1213 King Frederick II celebrated the Holy Week in Meersburg. Then, in 1233 Meersburg was granted the weekly market right by Frederick II. Shortly before his death in 1254, Conrad IV, having been deposed and excommunicated by Pope Innocent IV asked Eberhard II, the High Steward of Meersburg to care for his two-year-old son Conradin. In 1261 Conradin became the Duke of Swabia, raising an army in the Ravensburg area. He departed from Meersburg to head south into Italy to fight Charles I of Anjou and attempt to reclaim the titles stripped by the Pope from his father. While Conradin was able to take Rome, he was soon afterward captured and executed.

A few years later, in 1268 the castle came totally under the ownership of the Bishopric of Constance.

However, even as a residence for a bishop, the Meersburg was the site of several battles over the following centuries. In 1334, there were two candidates for the position of Bishop of Constance. Baron Nikolaus I of Kenzingen was elected bishop by supporters of the Pope while Albrecht of Hohenberg was chosen by the Holy Roman Emperor. Nikolaus quickly traveled to Avignon, in France the seat of Pope John XXII to have his appointment confirmed. He then returned to Meersburg and quickly had the defenses improved. Albrecht, meanwhile, had raised an army from the southern German princes and was joined by an Imperial army led by the Emperor. During the summer of 1334, the Imperial army besieged Burg Meersburg. During the siege, cannons were used for the first time in Germany.[8] However, even with the new gunpowder weapons the Imperial troops were unable to take the castle. At the end of August, Emperor Louis IV was growing tired of the siege. When Duke Otto of Austria requested his help against the Bohemians, Louis left Meersburg and confirmed Nikolaus as Bishop. Albrecht was granted the Bishopric of Würzburg in 1345 to replace the lost Bishopric.

Following Nikolaus, Urich Pfefferhardt was bishop from 1345 until 1351. In 1352 Johann III Windlock from Constance was installed at the castle, he proved to be an autocratic ruler and was disliked by the people and local nobles. Following a dispute with Konrad of Homberg-Markdorf and the Abbot Eberhard of Reichenau, he was killed by soldiers while in his palace in Constance.

Over the next century at least thirteen other Bishops were installed. Then in 1436 Heinrich IV of Hewen was appointed Bishop. His belligerent and arbitrary style caused friction between himself and the town. Following a riot, the town was fined 4,000 florins for breaking the peace within the castle grounds.[8] Later attempts by the town to secure Free Imperial City status led to further hostilities in 1457. The inhabitants of the city stormed the castle and captured it. Bishop Heinrich responded by besieging the city. Following intervention by Siegmund of Austria as well as Constance and Zürich a compromise was reached. Heinrich then withdrew, but attacked the city a short while later. Catching the citizens off guard, his soldiers stormed the city and captured all the leaders of the revolution. Heinrich executed the leaders of the rebellion and stripped rights away from the city.

The crow-stepped gable (a stepped roof line instead of a smooth roof line) on the tower was added by the Constance Prince-Bishop Hugo von Hohenlandenberg (Served 1496-1532). Before his time, the Meersburg was a summer residence of the bishops. Following a conflict with the city of Constance in 1526, Hugo moved to the Meersburg. The castle remained the bishops' primary residence until the move to the New Schloss in the 18th century.

In 1647 the castle was attacked by Swedish troops during the Thirty Years' War, however only the roof timbers were burned during the attack.

During the beginning of the XVIII century, the bishops began to build the New Castle at Meersburg as a modern residence castle. After 1750 the old castle served as a house for the administration of the city.


On top, right of Meersburg castle, is Annette von Droste Huelshoff's house in Meersburg (Fürstenhäusle), which today houses a Droste museum, but was never permanently inhabited by her.


At the bottom is the panorama of the pier for the ships of Mersburg and the red Gredhaus on the right, with a stepped pediment.

In 1498 Bishop Hugo von Hohenlandenberg (reigned 1496-1530, 1531-32) sold the building to the city on condition that it be used as a> department store: "zu ainem kouffhuss nach Irem gefallen [...]." A little later , 1505/09, newly built, the Gredhaus became the central urban trading and storage place for goods of all kinds for centuries. Most German cities built their own "department stores" in the late Middle Ages. This centralization of goods traffic offered advantages: control was made easier, as was tax collection. The grain trade with Switzerland was particularly important for Meersburg until the late XVIII century. In the 1850s, the port in front of the Gredhaus was expanded so that the steamships could moor more safely; As a result, the old shipping area of ​​the “Wild Man” increasingly lost its function as a landing stage. The Gredhaus was modernized in 1899, when the large windows were installed. At that time the coat of arms, which had previously been in the inner courtyard, also "migrated" to the outer front; it combines the coat of arms of Bishop Hugo von Hohenlandenberg and that of the city of Meersburg - under the miter and the year 1505. - Incidentally, the word Gred is generally derived from the Latin gradus (= step), by which the stepped scaffoldings were usually referred to the goods were presented.


On banknote's background are the feathers to write.

Lower, left, are the Braille symbols for visually impaired.

Denominations in numerals are lower and on right side, in words on right side (vertically).


20 Mark 1993

Die Judenbuche Die Judenbuche

On foreground is a feather to write as work instrument of Annette von Droste-Hülshoff.

On background is a beech. It is depicted in association with the famous novel of Droste-Hülshoff - "The jew's beech" ("Die Judenbuche").

Die Judenbuche (The Jew's Beech) is a novella written by Annette von Droste-Hülshoff and first published in 1842, in newspaper "Cotta’schen Morgenblatt". The beech tree becomes a significant symbol in the story.

It has been considered as potentially one of the first murder mysteries and is indeed often viewed as a crime thriller or Gothic fiction. The book is full of implications and red herrings while there is no definitive answer as to what actually happened.

The story is based on a real-life XVIII-century report provided by Annette von Droste-Hülshoff's uncle, the agronomist and writer August von Haxthausen. The events take place in the village of B. (Dorf B.) in the Westphalian mountains, which represents Bellersen in the former Prince-Bishopric of Paderborn, today part of the town of Brakel. The plot reflects the conditions of anarchy, bigotry, and antisemitism in a microstate's society of the disintegrating Holy Roman Empire.

More to the left is a seal of German Bundesbank.

In lower right corner is an opened book.

Denominations in numerals are lower and on left side, in words on left side (vertically).


The signatures on banknote belong to:

Johann Wilhelm Gaddum

Johann Wilhelm Gaddum (18 June 1930).

Hans Tietmeyer

Hans Tietmeyer (18 August 1931).

Reinhold Gerstetter

Designer - Reinhold Gerstetter.

Reinhold Gerstetter (October 18, 1945 in Leonberg in Baden-Württemberg) is a German graphic artist and designer. The most famous work in Germany is the last series of DM banknotes, which he designed, as well as the revision of the second Euro Series, the so-called "Euro-Series".

Gerstetter studied graphic design at the State Academy of Fine Arts in Stuttgart and later worked in advertising in London, Berlin and Haifa. From 1979 to 2002 he worked for the Bundesdruckerei. There he designed as a chief designer behördliches graphic design, stamps and banknotes (including for Israel, Bolivia and Peru). 1987 Gerst Etters design was chosen as the basis for the fourth and final series of banknotes of the German mark, which was from 1990 to early 2002 in circulation. A short time later, he also won the design competition of the Banco de España, which published four banknote values ​​from 1992, based on Gerst Etters designs. Although his designs submitted for the first series of banknotes of the common currency were not selected euro by the jury for the implementation, however, he was entrusted with the revision of the second series of euro banknotes that came into circulation as of May 2013.

His daughter, Avitall, is Germany's first female Jewish cantor.

Fourth Series of DM.

On March 19, 1981, the members of the Central Bank Council of the Deutsche Bundesbank decided to issue a new banknote series. She had become necessary due to technological progress, by the falsification of the old notes had become ever easier. Also a new series for the automatic payment transactions would be more appropriate. It took almost ten years, until the first two banknote values ​​were put into circulation on 1 October 1990 levels. This was around the 100- and 200-mark note. The latter denomination was introduced in this series of banknotes.

When designing the bank notes and the selection of the design elements were a lot of decisions to make. As early as the preliminary to the new series portraits were determined as the main subject. It should "be chosen brilliant portraits of personalities of German history in the fields of art, literature, music, economics, science and technology". In addition, the rear in conjunction should be about the person depicted on the front. Further, the primary colors of the note values ​​should remain unchanged and the word banknote stand on every bill in Gothic script.

People Picker.

A committee, consisting of historians Karl Otmar von Aretin, Knut Borchardt and Horst Fuhrmann, was commissioned to define the persons who should appear on the banknotes. The choice was between about 70 to 80 people. Here to "Top Artists" (z. B. Goethe, Schiller, Dürer) has been omitted. Likewise, retired people from whose expellees affiliation was unclear or a provocation in creed or political manner could mean (for example, Martin Luther, Karl Marx) or who had rendered her work mainly abroad, such as Jacques Offenbach.

When selecting the people should pay attention to balance in terms of gender, religion, national origin and work area. It should, if possible, three, but at least be represented two female characters in the series. However, the selection was very limited to female personalities. The aim was to show women who have created an independent work and not in the shade close to them were men (Charlotte von Stein, Charlotte von Kalb). However, such women were very rare until the XIX century. Therefore, the Panel chose to begin with the female figures, so not limitations on the field of activity, origin or confession had to be considered.

One of the requirements for the design was that the people viewed by the observer, the left should look towards banknote center. This meant that the provided portraits for five, ten, twenty, fifty and two hundred-Mark banknotes had to be mirrored. As with the Brothers Grimm two people should be ready to give them the largest banknote was reserved because of the large space requirement. Otherwise, men and women should alternate. The rest of the allocation of person and note value, however, was random and does not constitute a rating of persons.

Actually, Maria Sibylla Merian was earmarked for the 100- and Clara Schumann for the 500-mark note. However, only an artistically inferior etching by Johann Rudolf Schellenberg was for the portrait of Maria Sibylla Merian available, as in the original template doubts about the authenticity arose. Therefore, the Bundesbank held a design competition in order to get a high-quality master of this etching, which was the basis for the portrait on the bill later. Since the 100-DM-note should appear as one of the first, the people were replaced because of these difficulties.

Selection of the winning design.

Bundesdruckerei (represented by Rudolf Gerhardt, who had already designed the bench marks (BBK-II) for West Berlin), Ernst: For the design competition, which ran from 1 January to 30 June 1987, four graphic designers were by the Bundesbank in charge disciples, Johann Müller and Adrian Arthur Senger. According to the judgment of an expert commission consisting of historians, designers and graphic designers as well as a sociologist, corresponded to only one series to the high expectations. However, this reminded too much of the Swiss franc, so that she did not come into question. Thus, it would have been necessary actually a new design competition, which would have delayed the project by at least one year. But since Bundesdruckerei did submit two drafts, which was not accepted by the Bundesbank, was the draft by the then chief graphic designer of Bundesdruckerei, Reinhold Gerstetter, yet unseen in custody of the Bundesbank. After review by the Panel of this design was selected eventually as a basis for the new banknote series. The experts wrote: "The art expert panel is unanimously of the view that the here [...] compiled draft properties largely meet the requirements [...]. The art expert panel may recommend in this sense, the Deutsche Bundesbank, to make the present proposals for the basis of a new banknote series."

Configuration of the front sides.

The to be seen on the front towns pictures were an idea Gerst Etters. In his designs were to be seen in some cases striking modern building of the respective cities. However, the draft of the city of Frankfurt led to the decision to represent only historical buildings. The reason given was that the office towers of Deutsche Bank dominated the design and the Bundesbank should not be suspected to advertise for a private company.

In 1988, it was now necessary to select the appropriate city for each person. The design of the graphic looked for Paul Ehrlich Bad Homburg, his place of death, before. However, his work was held in Berlin and Frankfurt mostly. Frankfurt had Gerstetter however provided for Clara Schumann, who spent her final years there. After deciding on the introduction of the 5-DM-bill with the portrait of Bettina von Arnim was soon clear map to this the city of Berlin. Because each city should appear on the banknotes only once, only came for Paul Ehrlich thus Frankfurt in question. For Clara Schumann, the city of Leipzig was chosen because Leipzig was not just her birth, but because they also had their first successes there later.

Due to the events in the years 1989/1990, the decision for Leipzig proved a stroke of luck; because the banknote series was originally intended only for West Germany and West Berlin. But as the new federal states were represented with a city which also still has a special symbolic meaning: Here is the first Monday demonstrations took place that led to the dissolution of the GDR and the reunification of Germany.

Design of backs.

Reinhold Gerstetter looked for the back of the 1000-Mark certificate as the main subject is a figure from the fairy tale The Star Money before. However, the Brothers Grimm should, despite their extensive collection of fairy tales, can not be reduced to the fairy tale, as they have rendered outstanding services to the issuing of the German dictionary much about the German language. Thus, the dictionary was the main motif, and the Sterntaler "wandered" into the White Field.

Also in the design of the back was done with great attention to detail. So, even the background pattern a reference to the person who is pictured on the front. A penalty for the forgery of bank notes was no longer available in the fourth series.