Top
header Notes Collection

10 Kronur 1981, Iceland

in Krause book Number: 48a
Years of issue: 02.01.1981 - 1984
Edition: --
Signatures: Johannes Nordal, Guðmundur Hjartarson, 1974 - 1984
Serie: 29 March 1961 Issue
Specimen of: 1961
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 130 х 70
Printer: Bradbury, Wilkinson & Company Limited, New Malden

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

10 Kronur 1981

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Jón Sigurðsson.

Avers:

10 Kronur 1981

Arngrímur Jónsson lærði

The engraving on banknote is made after this lithography of Arngrímur Jónsson the Learned, published in his book, issued in XVII century.

Arngrímur Jónsson the Learned (Icelandic: Arngrímur Jónsson hinn lærði; 1568 – June 27, 1648) was an Icelandic scholar and an apologist. His father was Jón Jónsson, who died in 1591. Arngrímur studied in Copenhagen, completing his studies in 1589 and taking up a position back in Iceland as rector of the Latin school at the episcopal seat of Hólar in the same year.

In 1593 he published "Brevis commentarius de Islandia", a "Defense of Iceland" in Latin, in which he criticized the works of numerous authors who had written about the people and the country of Iceland. His main target was a poem by Gories Peerse, a merchant who had written an entertaining and somewhat slanderous poem about Icelandic geography and ethnography. Arngrímur also, however, criticized substantial works such as the "Cosmographie" of the German scholar Sebastian Münster.

"The Brevis commentarius de Islandia" was reprinted in 1598 in Richard Hakluyt's Principal Navigations of the English Nation. This defense of Iceland and subsequent works were important for introducing European scholars to the ancient literature of Iceland and the richness of the manuscripts present there. In the context of the mounting conflicts between Denmark and Sweden, which saw both countries trying to establish historical precedents for their empire-building, it also played a formative role in the development of European nationalism, participating in the ethnographic insult and counterinsult by which European countries came to distinguish themselves in print. Through this and other writings–particularly his most important work, the "Crymogæa" of 1609 - Arngrímur became an influential figure, inspiring leading Danish and Icelandic historians of subsequent generations, most prominently Ole Worm.

In his historical writings Arngrímur had access to texts no longer extant, most importantly a large fragment of Skjöldunga saga which was later lost completely. His works on legendary Danish and Swedish kings are the most important evidence for the contents of the lost saga.

Crymogæa Crymogæa

Floral pattern on the edges of the frame, in the center, made after the image of the pattern on the head of a wooden bed (wood carving), which is now in the National Museum, in Reykjavik.

The pattern on the bed, in turn, was made after the image of the pattern in the book Arngrimyur Jonsson - "Crymogæa", 1609.

CrymogæaOn the banknote the written denomination is in a typeface matching that in Arngrímur Jónsson's tract on Iceland - "Crymogæa".

Denominations in numerals are in top corners. Centered in words.

Revers:

10 Kronur 1981

Evening scene in the Icelandic home near Reykjavik, XIX century.

Voyage en Islande et au Groenland Voyage en Islande et au Groenland Voyage en Islande et au Groenland

On banknote hand the lithography №21 by Alphonse Bayot after drawing by M.A. Mayer, in the second it's historic atlases (Atlas Historique), issued in 1839 by publishing house "Arthus Bertrand" to the book by knige Joseph Paul Gaimard - "Voyage en Islande et au Groenland".

Joseph Paul Gaimard (31 January 1796 – 10 December 1858) was a French naval surgeon and naturalist.

Gaimard was born at Saint-Zacharie on January 31, 1793. He studied medicine at the naval medical school in Toulon, subsequently earning his qualifications as a naval surgeon. Along with Jean René Constant Quoy, he served as naturalist on the ships L'Uranie under Louis de Freycinet 1817-1820, and L'Astrolabe under Jules Dumont d'Urville 1826-1829. During this voyage they discovered the now extinct giant skink of Tonga, Tachygia microlepis.

From his studies of cholera in Europe, he co-authored "Du choléra-morbus en Russie, en Prusse et en Autriche, pendant les années 1831-1832" ("Cholera morbus in Russia, Prussia and Austria in the years 1831&1832").

He was the scientific leader on La Recherche (1835-1836) during its expedition to the Arctic Sea, making voyages to coastal Iceland and Greenland - from 27 April to 13 September 1835 and from 21 May to 26 September 1836. Along with exploratory and scientific goals, the crew of the expedition was tasked with searching for Jules de Blosseville, who disappeared aboard the Lilloise in Arctic waters a few years earlier. Out of these trips came the 9-volume "Voyage en Islande et au Groënland" (8 text volumes, one of geographical illustrations), which was said at the time to be the definitive study of the islands.

From 1838 to 1840, again aboard La Recherche, he was the leader of a scientific expedition to Lapland, Spitzbergen and the Faroe Islands.

At least two species have been named in his honor:

Eualus gaimardii (H. Milne Edwards, 1837).

Byblis gaimardi (Krøyer, 1846).

In lower right corner are the household items of traditional Icelandic house in XIX century, taken from the items in National Museum, Reykjavik.

Exactly are:

1) The head of a wooden bed, a pattern which is taken to design the frame on the obverse of the note.

2) Wooden mug with a handle.

3) The bowl with top, depicted on lithography.

Voyage en Islande et au Groenland Voyage en Islande et au Groenland

4) Unknown (long, with pattern) object, which I still have to identify.

Voyage en Islande et au Groenland

The women (on lithography) are dressed in the Icelandic national dress - Peysuföt.

The five following types of costume are all recognized as Icelandic National costumes. However both the kyrtill and skautbúningur were designed in the XIX century from scratch as ceremonial costumes, while the faldbúningur, peysuföt and the upphlutur are traditional daily wear of Icelandic women in olden times.

The Faldbúningur is an older type of costume worn by women since at least the XVII century and well into the XIX. In its most recognized form it incorporated a hat decorated with a curved sheet-like ornament protruding into the air and exists in two variants. One of which is the krókfaldur and the other is the spaðafaldur. Previously a large hat decorated with gold-wire bands was worn with it, as well as ruff which is the reason for the faldbúningur's wide collar, which was designed to support it. Later, around the start of the XVIII century women started to wear the much simpler tail-cap with it.

The Peysuföt are black woolen clothes commonly worn by women in the XVIII-XIX century. They usually consisted of a twill skirt and a jacket of fine knitted woolen yearn with a black tail cap. It is believed that this costume was invented when women, desiring simpler working clothes than the faldbúningur, started to use male articles of clothing. This includes both the tail-cap and the peysa which originally was a jacket with a single row of buttons, but evolved into this costume and eventually discarded with the buttons.

The Upphlutur is a woman's costume, consisting of bodice that can be coloured in bright colours such as red or blue, but often black. Its headpiece is a tail cap. The costume is basically the undergarment of the faldbúningur which evolved into a costume of its own right.

The Kyrtill is a costume for women, designed by the artist Sigurður Guðmundsson in the XIX century. It was designed to look like Viking age costumes. It however incorporates a hat similar to the one on the skautbúningur. While Sigurður's vision of the Viking age costume remains popular, costumes designed to more closely resemble archaeological finds have gained some popularity as well.

The Skautbúningur was also designed by Sigurður Guðmundsson. It was conceived as a modernized variation of the faldbúningur, which had fallen out of use by the middle of the 19th century. It incorporates a complicated hat inspired by the ones traditionally used with the faldbúningur.

Voyage en Islande et au Groenland

The men are dressed in Þjóðbúningur karla.

The one considered most traditional consists of woolen breeches or trousers, a usually double buttoned vest and a double buttoned jacket called treyja. Sometimes a peysa with a single row of buttons is used in lieu of the vest and treyja. On the head is a tail cap, though historically different hats were also used. This costume was usually black, navy blue or dark green, although the vest, which was usually brighter was sometimes red, some regions stood out, using white wool instead of the darker colors. It is identical to the clothing Icelandic men commonly wore from the XVII until the XIX century.

Denominations in numerals are in lower left and top right corners.

Comments:

First put into circulation in 1981, this note is no longer circulated by the Central Bank, although it is still valid legal tender. In 1984 a 10 Krónur coin was issued to replace the note.

article

An article in the newspaper (dated November 1, 1980) about the exchange of old banknotes for new ones.