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100 Dollars 2002, New Zealand

in Krause book Number: 189b
Years of issue: 09.2002 - 09.2012
Edition: --
Signatures: Governor: Dr. Alan Bollard (in the office 09.2002 - 09.2012)
Serie: Fifth Series
Specimen of: 20.03.2000
Material: Polymer
Size (mm): 155 х 74
Printer: Note Printing Australia, Craigieburn, Melbourne

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

100 Dollars 2002

Description

Watermark:

HM The Queen Elizabeth II

Her majesty The Queen Elizabeth II.

The New Zealand monarchy has its roots in the British crown, from which it has evolved to become a distinctly New Zealand institution, represented by unique symbols. New Zealand's monarch-since 6 February 1952, Queen Elizabeth II-is today shared equally with fifteen other countries within the Commonwealth of Nations, all being independent and the monarchy of each legally distinct. For New Zealand, the current monarch is officially titled Queen of New Zealand, and she, her consort, and other members of the New Zealand Royal Family undertake various public and private functions across New Zealand and on behalf of the country abroad.

Avers:

100 Dollars 2002

Ernest RutherfordThe engraving on banknote is, probably, made after this photo of Sir Rutherford.

Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, OM FRS (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937) was a New Zealand-born British physicist who became known as the father of nuclear physics. Encyclopædia Britannica considers him to be the greatest experimentalist since Michael Faraday (1791-1867).

In early work he discovered the concept of radioactive half-life, proved that radioactivity involved the nuclear transmutation of one chemical element to another, and also differentiated and named alpha and beta radiation. This work was done at McGill University in Canada. It is the basis for the Nobel Prize in Chemistry he was awarded in 1908 "for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances", for which he is the first Canadian and Oceanian Nobel laureate, and remains the only laureate born in the South Island.

Rutherford moved in 1907 to the Victoria University of Manchester (today University of Manchester) in the UK, where he and Thomas Royds proved that alpha radiation is helium nuclei. Rutherford performed his most famous work after he became a Nobel laureate. In 1911, although he could not prove that it was positive or negative, he theorized that atoms have their charge concentrated in a very small nucleus, and thereby pioneered the Rutherford model of the atom, through his discovery and interpretation of Rutherford scattering in his gold foil experiment. He is widely credited with first "splitting the atom" in 1917 in a nuclear reaction between nitrogen and alpha particles, in which he also discovered (and named) the proton.

Rutherford became Director of the Cavendish Laboratory at the University of Cambridge in 1919. Under his leadership the neutron was discovered by James Chadwick in 1932 and in the same year the first experiment to split the nucleus in a fully controlled manner, performed by students working under his direction, John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton. After his death in 1937, he was honoured by being interred with the greatest scientists of the United Kingdom, near Sir Isaac Newton's tomb in Westminster Abbey. The chemical element rutherfordium (element 104) was named after him in 1997.

Ernest RutherfordOn left side is an obverse of gold Nobel Prize Medal, which Sir Ernest Rutherford received in 1908.

The problem of the concept that there is an alpha particle radiation, Rutherford decided in 1908. He proved that where there is a source of alpha radiation, there are atoms of helium (alpha particles).

In the same year, Rutherford was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for carrying out their research in the decay of elements in the chemistry of radioactive substances". (In those days it was customary to refer more research on the structure of the atom and radioactivity to chemistry.)

To which he said that he had to deal with many transformations in nature, but this momentary turning it hardly could have foreseen!

Ernest RutherfordOverlaying the medallion is a graph, plotting the results from Lord Rutherford’s investigations into naturally occurring radioactivity.

Rutherford was the first to understand the structure of the atom, the first proton allocated as an independent elementary particles and gave him the name. He carried out the first artificial nuclear reaction, converting nitrogen into oxygen.

TukutukuOn background is tukutuku design - Whakaaro Kotahi.

It comes from the wharenui (meeting house) Kaakati of Whakatū marae in Nelson, and represents unity and consensus.

Tukutuku panelling is a distinctive art form of the Māori people of New Zealand, a traditional latticework used to decorate meeting houses.

Tukutuku patterns vary considerably from iwi to iwi throughout the land. Certain designs are associated with particular iwi, some may have different names in different regions, or the names may be spelled in various ways. Many forms are related to mythologies, the stories about them vary from iwi to iwi. Some of the traditions are recorded here; this information has been drawn heavily from the works of Te Rangi Hiroa, and of John M. Mepham at Tokomaru Bay. Hiroa has suggested that the simpler forms are probably the older designs, later patterns developed pictorial forms, such as ancestral figures or other shapes. The wharenui was formally opened by the late Maori Queen Dame - Te Atairangikaahu, in 1995.(Encyclopedia of New Zealand)

Whakatū maraeWhakatū marae, one of seven marae in the region, is a sign of the revival of Nelson–Marlborough’s eight tribes. Along with new marae projects they are developing educational and health facilities; they also provide training programmes, and have developed significant commercial fishing and aquaculture businesses.

In Māori society, the marae is a place where the culture can be celebrated, where the Māori language can be spoken, where intertribal obligations can be met, where customs can be explored and debated, where family occasions such as birthdays can be held, and where important ceremonies, such as welcoming visitors or farewelling the dead (tangihanga), can be performed. Like the related institutions of old Polynesia, the marae is a wāhi tapu, a 'sacred place' which carries great cultural meaning.

In Māori usage, the marae atea (often shortened to marae) is the open space in front of the wharenui or meeting house (literally "large building"). However, the term marae is generally used to refer to the whole complex, including the buildings and the open space. This area is used for pōwhiri - welcome ceremonies featuring oratory. Some marae do not allow women to perform oratory there. The meeting house is the locale for important meetings, sleepovers, and craft and other cultural activities. The wharekai (dining hall) is used primarily for communal meals, but other activities may be carried out there. Many of the words associated with marae in tropical Polynesia are retained in the Māori context. For example, the word paepae refers to the bench where the speakers sit; this means it retains its sacred and ceremonial associations. Marae occur in various sizes, with some wharenui being a bit bigger than a double garage and some being larger than a town hall.

Cyathea dealbata

On the left side is Cyathea dealbata, also known as the silver tree fern or silver fern, also as ponga /ˈpɒŋə/ or punga /ˈpʌŋə/ (from Māori kaponga or ponga). It is a species of medium-sized tree fern, endemic to New Zealand. It is a symbol commonly associated with the country both overseas and by New Zealanders themselves.

This fern is known to grow to heights of 10 m or more (though it occasionally takes a rare creeping form). The crown is dense, and the fronds tend to be about 4 m long and have a silver-white colouration on the undersides. This distinctive silver colouration has made them useful for laying along tracks for night walking. The scales are a dark brown and are often twisted and glossy.

Arriving relatively late in New Zealand's history during the Pliocene epoch (around 5.0-1.8 million years ago), the silver fern occurs on the main islands of New Zealand and on the Chatham Islands to the east, mostly in the subcanopy areas of drier forests and in open scrub. It is known to grow well in well-drained humus, and once established, it will tolerate drier conditions. It does best when sheltered from winds and should be protected from frost. It does not grow under the dense canopy of mature forests.

The map of New Zealand is on top.

Denominations in numerals are top left and bottom right. In words bottom left.

Revers:

100 Dollars 2002

Mohoua ochrocephalaOn foreground is The yellowhead or mōhua (Mohoua ochrocephala).

It is a small insectivorous, passerine bird endemic to the South Island of New Zealand. Recent classification places this species and its close relative, the Whitehead, in the family Mohouidae.

The yellowhead and the whitehead have allopatric distributions as, conversely, the latter is found only on the North Island and several small islands surrounding it. Although abundant in the XIX century, particularly in beech forests from Nelson and the Marlborough Sounds to Southland and Stewart Island/Rakiura, they declined dramatically in the early XX century due to the introduction of black rats and mustelids. Today they have vanished from nearly 75% of their former range. A quarter of the mohua population now lives in the beech forests of the Catlins area.

In New Zealand, mohua have the status of a protected threatened endemic species. Conservation efforts are being made to ensure its survival and mohua populations have been established on several predator-free offshore islands, such as Breaksea Island in Fiordland and Ulva Island.

Pest control efforts by the Department of Conservation, have managed to stabilise some mainland mohua populations. For example, where biodegradable 1080 poison was used to control rats in the Dart valley, there was a more than 80 per cent survival rate, compared with just 10 per cent in un-treated areas. The population of mohua in the Landsborough valley has increased four-fold since 1998, thanks to an intensive programme of pest control, including aerial 1080. The population is now strong enough for birds to be transferred out to establish a new population on Resolution Island. Similar aerial 1080 operations in the Catlins and the Hurunui, Hawdon and Eglinton valleys have had equally encouraging results. DOC and TBfree New Zealand accounted in March 2014 a significant repopulation in the Catlins of other avian species, including bellbird and tomtit due to the reduction in predators.

Nothofágus fúscaThe yellowhead sitting on the Red beech.

Fuscospora fusca, commonly known as red beech (Māori: tawhai raunui) is a species of southern beech, endemic to New Zealand, where it occurs on both the North Island and South Island. Generally it is found on lower hills and inland valley floors where soil is fertile and well drained. It was known as Nothofagus fusca prior to 2013.

It is a medium-sized evergreen tree growing to 35 m. tall. The leaves are alternately arranged, broad ovoid, 2 to 4 cm. long and 1.5 to 3 cm. broad, the margin distinctively double-toothed with each lobe bearing two teeth. The fruit is a small cupule containing three seeds.

Pollen from the tree was found near the Antarctic Peninsula showing that it formerly grew in Antarctica since the Eocene period.

Red beech is the only known plant source, apart from rooibos (Aspalathus linearis), of the C-linked dihydrochalcone glycoside nothofagin.

It is also grown as an ornamental tree in regions with a mild oceanic climate due to its attractive leaf shape. It has been planted in Scotland and the North Coast of the Pacific of the United States. The red beech's wood is the most durable of all the New Zealand beeches it was often used in flooring in many parts of New Zealand. The timber is exceptionally stable when dried to appropriate moisture values. The average density of red beech at 12 percent moisture content is 630 kilograms per cubic meter. Red beech is not currently considered threatened.

Nothofágus fúscaIn lower left corner is the South Island lichen moth (Declana egregia).

It is found in Fiordland beech forests. The moths blend perfectly with the lichens that cling to the trunks of the trees. Endemic to New Zealand.

Eglinton ValleyOn background is the view at Eglinton Valley.

It s located within the Fiordland National Park on Te Anau-Milford Sound highway. It is home to a particularly fine stand of red beech and a declining population of Yellowhead.

Follow the path of an ancient glacier through Fiordland National Park. The Eglinton Valley is a 30 minute drive north of Te Anau on the South Island of New Zealand that you'll pass on the way to Milford Sound. This valley is well known for 'The Avenue of the Disappearing Mountain' and its wonderful views.

The Eglinton valley is glaciated with steep sides and a flat floor. It's between 0.5 to 2 kilometers wide and has a shingle riverbed floor, which is constantly being changed by the Eglinton River. This is one of the few valleys in Fiordland to have road access. Since the Eglinton Valley is a long narrow valley with clear natural boundaries, a wide variety of flora and fauna, and a road running up the middle, it is an ideal location to explore and see the stunning surrounds from one of the only road-accessible valleys in Fiordland. (activeadventures.com)

Denominations in numerals are top left and right. In words top, in center.

Comments:

1) Each polymer note has two transparent windows. One of the transparent windows is oval and has the denomination of the note embossed in it. The other window is in the shape of a curved fern leaf.

2) There is a fern immediately above the clear fern-shaped window. When you hold the note to the light, the fern should match perfectly with another fern on the other side.

3) You should be able to see a shadow image of the H. M. Queen Elizabeth II when you hold the note to the light.

4) Each note has an individual serial number printed horizontally and vertically.

5) Polymer notes have raised printing, which can be felt when you run your fingers over it.

6) Tiny micro-printed letters “RBNZ” should be visible with a magnifying glass.

7) Most commercial papers used in forgeries glow under an ultraviolet light, however the polymer notes use special inks which appear dull except for specific features that glow brightly. For example, the front of each genuine note includes a fluorescent patch showing the denomination.