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20 Pesos 1978, Cuba

in Krause book Number: 105b
Years of issue: 1978
Edition: --
Signatures: Presidente del Banco: Raul Leon Torras (1973-1985)
Serie: 1967 Issue
Specimen of: 1971
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 148 х 70
Printer: Los Talleres de Grabado en Acero y Timbre del Estado de La Habana, STC-P

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20 Pesos 1978

Description

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20 Pesos 1978

Text throughout the field of banknote: "Cuba - free territory of America, the homeland or death".

Camilo Cienfuegos GorriaránThe engraving on banknote is made after this photo of Camilo Cienfuegos Gorriarán, 1959.

Camilo Cienfuegos Gorriarán (February 6, 1932 - October 28, 1959) was a Cuban revolutionary born in Lawton, Havana. Raised in an anarchist family that had left Spain before the Spanish Civil War, he became a key figure of the Cuban Revolution, along with Fidel Castro, Che Guevara, Juan Almeida Bosque, and Raúl Castro. In 1957 he became one of the top leaders of the revolutionary forces, appointed to the rank of "Comandante". In 1958, with the defeat of Operation Verano (Summer), Cienfuegos was put in command of one of three columns which headed west out of the mountains with the intention of capturing the provincial capital city of Santa Clara. Che Guevara was in command of another column and Jaime Vega was in command of the third. Jaime Vega's column was ambushed and defeated by Batista's forces.

Cienfuegos and Guevara's two columns reached the central provinces, where they joined efforts with several other groups. Cienfuegos's column fought the Battle of Yaguajay in December and, after a fight, forced the garrison to surrender on December 30, 1958. This earned him the nickname "The Hero of Yaguajay". With Yaguajay captured, Cienfuegos's column was able to advance against Santa Clara in conjunction with Guevara's forces, and the other non-Castro forces from the Escambray front. Together, the two columns captured Santa Clara on December 31, most of the defending soldiers gave up without shooting. Batista fled Cuba the next day, and the guerrillas were victorious.

Later, Cienfuegos would serve in the Cuban Army's high command, fight anti-Castro uprisings, and play a role in agrarian reforms.

Denominations are in all corners, in words on left side.

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20 Pesos 1978

Desembarco DesembarcoThe landing in December 2, 1956 off the yacht "Granma" (Desembarco del yate Granma).

The yacht Granma arrived in Cuba on December 2, 1956, carrying the Castro brothers and 80 others, even though the yacht was only designed to accommodate 12 people with a maxiumum of 25. The boat landed in Playa Las Coloradas, in the municipality of Niquero, arriving two days later than planned because the boat was heavily loaded, unlike during the practice sailing runs. This dashed any hopes for a coordinated attack with the llano wing of the movement. After arriving and exiting the ship, the band of rebels began to make their way into the Sierra Maestra mountains, a range in southeastern Cuba. Three days after the trek began, Batista's army attacked and killed most of the Granma participants – while the exact number is disputed, no more than twenty of the original eighty-two men survived the initial encounters with the Cuban army and escaped into the Sierra Maestra mountains.

The group of survivors included Fidel and Raúl Castro, Che Guevara and Camilo Cienfuegos. The dispersed survivors, alone or in small groups, wandered through the mountains, looking for each other. Eventually, the men would link up again – with the help of peasant sympathizers – and would form the core leadership of the guerrilla army. A number of female revolutionaries, including Celia Sanchez and Haydée Santamaría (the sister of Abel Santamaria), also assisted Fidel Castro's operations in the mountains.

Denominations in numerals are on right and left sides.

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