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5 Pesos 1960, Cuba

in Krause book Number: 91a
Years of issue: 1960
Edition: --
Signatures: Presidente del Banco: Ernesto Che Guevara (29 November 1959 - 23 February 1961), Ministro de Hacienda: Rufo López-Fresquet
Serie: No Serie
Specimen of: 1958
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 145 х 62
Printer: TDLR (Thomas de la Rue & Company), London

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

5 Pesos 1960

Description

Watermark:

Avers:

5 Pesos 1960

Text throughout the field of banknote: "Banco Nacional de Cuba".

Maximo Gomez y BaezThe engraving on banknote is made after this portrait of Maximo Baez.

Máximo Gómez y Báez (November 18, 1836 - June 17, 1905) was a Dominican Major General in the Ten Years' War (1868-1878). He was also Cuba's military commander in that country's War of Independence (1895-1898).

Gomez retired from the Spanish Army and soon took up the rebel cause in 1868, helping transform the Cuban Army's military tactics and strategy from the conventional approach favored by Thomas Jordan and others. He gave the Cuban Mambises their most feared tactic: The "Machete Charge".

On October 26, 1868 at Pinos de Baire, Gomez led a Machete Charge on foot, ambushing a Spanish column and obliterating it. The Spanish Army was terrified of these charges because the majority (there were at least 200 Spanish casualties in the attack) were infantry troops, mainly conscripts, who were fearful of being cut down by the machetes. Because the Cuban Army always lacked sufficient munitions, the usual combat technique was to shoot once and then charge the Spanish.

In 1871 Gómez led a campaign to clear Guantánamo from forces loyal to Spain, in particular the rich coffee growers - mostly of French descent, whose their ancestors had fled from Haiti after the Haitians slaughtered the French.

Gómez carried out a bloody, but successful campaign, and most of his officers went on to become high-ranking officers, including Antonio and José Maceo, Adolfo Flor Crombet, Policarpo Pineda "Rustán", and many others.

Following the death in combat of Major General Ignacio Agramonte y Loynáz in May 1873, Gómez assumed the command of the military district of the province of Camaguey and its famed Cavalry Corps. Upon first inspecting the corps he concluded they were the best trained and disciplined in the nascent indigenous Cuban Army and would significantly contribute to the war for independence.

On the left side is the red seal of Cuban National Bank (the coat of arms of Cuba, on background is the five-pointed star).

Batalla de Mal tiempoCentered is the painting by Cuban painter Feliciano Ibáñez (1867-1940) "La Batalla de Mal tiempo" (translation to English approximately as - "The Battle by Severe Weather"), approx. 1907. Today is in Cuban National Museum, in Havana.

On the banknote depicted the Cuban cavalry attack, led by Major General Maximo Gomez, on Spaniards (in blue) on the right side.

"The Battle by Severe Weather" is the battle of Maceo and Gomez columns with the Spaniards in December 15, 1895, by their invasion of the Cienfuegos territory.

This battle is considered one of the most important measures, taken by the rebel forces in the invasion of the West Cuba, during the war of independence against Spanish colonialism.

In that battle, the Liberation Army caused about 200 casualties on the Spanish army. Independence forces only reported four dead and as many wounded. The certain military strategy of Generalissimo Gomez and courage and combat readiness of its troops was tested.

Denominations in numerals are in all corners, in words on the right and left sides.

Revers:

5 Pesos 1960

The coat of arms is centered.

coat

The Cuban Coat of Arms is the official heraldic symbol of Cuba. It consists of a shield, in front of a Fasces crowned by the Phrygian Cap, all supported by an oak branch on one side and a laurel wreath on the other. The coat of arms was created by Miguel Teurbe Tolón and was adopted on April 24, 1906.

The shield is divided into three parts:

In the chief, a key charging a blue sea between two rocks, symbolizing Cuba’s geographical position between Florida and the Yucatán Peninsula. A bright rising sun in the background symbolizes the rising of the new republic. A key is a symbol of Cuba as Cuba is the key to the Americas. On the left are the stripes of the flag of Cuba but turned so as they are bendwise. On the right is a common Cuban landscape, Royal Palm tree, a symbol of Cuba with mountains in the background.

The shield is supported by an oak branch on one side and a laurel wreath on the other. The oak branch symbolizes the strength of the nation; and the laurel wreath: honor and glory. These symbols were meant to represent the rights of man: Equality, Liberty and Fraternity.

A Phrygian Cap (Gorro Frigio) or liberty cap is located at the top, as a crown symbolizing liberty, with a sole star on it standing for independence.

tobacco cubaOn left side is the tobacco plantation on Cuba.

The Pinar del Rio province is the most important growing area in Cuba. It is located at the western end of Cuba and contains the Vuelta Abajo and the Semi Vuelta regions. Arguably nowhere in the world grows tobacco better than Cuba. But even here, only a few selected farms are judged good enough to grow the tobacco for Habanos.

Vuelta Abajo is the main region of tobacco for Habanos, and the only region that grows all types of leaf, but less than a quarter of the tobacco-growing land enjoys the Vegas Finas de Primera status that is required for the growing of tobacco for Habanos. San Luis: Small town at the epicentre of Cuban tobacco culture, known above all for the cultivation of wrapper leaves.

Second most important region region in the western heartland of Cuban tobacco cultivation, and another location for the cultivation of Habano wrapper leaves. The area employed is very small, however, barely one per cent of Semi Vuelta's total tobacco-producing land. Most of Semi Vuelta's tobacco is grown for other purposes.

The Vuelta Arriba region contains the Remedios tobacco-growing areas, which is the source of all types of leaf for José L Piedra. The soil and climate have their own distinctive character, but methods of cultivation used here are the same as in other regions.

Another area specialising in the cultivation of wrapper leaves.

In 1907 Cuban botanists, researching the indigenous Cuban black tobacco (Tabaco Negro Cubano), developed a seed variety Habanensis, which had the characteristic Cuban taste, but was more disease resistant.

Around 1940, an improved seed variety Criollo was developed, and later a sub-variety Corojo was developed for wrappers. In 1992, Habana 2000 was introduced. This was followed in 1998 by Criollo 98.

In 2006 more resistant hybrids were developed, being Habano 2006 (from Habana 2000 & Criollo 1998) which are being used for the 2006/07 crop. These new hybrids are more disease resistant, have extra leaves, and do not flower.

The growing condition of the plants and the leaf location determines its final use. Plants are either sun grown or shade grown.

Shade-Grown Tobacco:

The muslin cover filters the sunlight and traps the heat so the leaves grow larger and finer; perfect conditions for growing the perfect wrapper leaf.

Only the largest and finest leaves are selected to make wrappers for Habanos. Wrappers are the most expensive leaf to produce.

In shade grown tobacco, the plant leaf is used for wrappers. The colour of the leaf progressively varies over the height of the plant. The lower leaf is lighter and the upper leaf is darker. These upper leaves are used in the Limited Editions and the Cohiba Maduro range.

Sun Grown Tobacco:

The full force of Cuban sunlight develops the glorious variety of flavours that are blended to form the rich and complex taste of a Habano. In sun grown tobacco, there are 4 types of leaf. (www.cubancigarwebsite.com)

On right side is scene of cigars production.

Handmade Cigars - Totalmente a Mano Tripa Larga (long filler):

For fully handmade cigars, the roller (Torcedora) first lays out the binder leaf.

The full size (Tripa Larga) filler leaves are then gathered, folded, and aligned (to ensure a clear passage). The leaves are arranged with the lighter flavoured tips at the foot of the cigar. The stronger flavoured slower burning Ligero leaf is placed along the center of the cigar.

Next the bunch is formed by rolling the filler onto the laid-out binder leaf, starting at the foot. The head of the bunch is guillotined and the bunch is pressed into a timber mould to form the shape.

After this stage, the bunches are subject to a suction draw test. This testing commenced circa 2002; initially only random cigars were suction tested for minimum draw pressure. Now every cigar undergoes a suction test to satisfy both minimum and maximum draw pressures.

The wrapper is then prepared, smooth side out. After trimming the exposed edge, the formed bunch is laid on the wrapper and rolled, starting at the cigar's foot. The cap is then fitted and the cigar guillotined to length.

Handmade Short-Filler Cigars - Totalmente a Mano Tripa Corta:

Handmade Short Filler cigars have a filler composed of leaf trimmings from the bunches of long filler cigars combined with other selected chopped tobacco, but full size binders and wrappers are used.

Some short-filler cigars are still produced by Habanos SA.

Denominations in numerals are in all corners, in words on the right and left sides.

Comments:

For assistance in preparing the material a special thanks to Pavel from Samara (Russian Federation) and to the following links:

(Strela. Банкноты и монеты rus.) (www.elgrancapitan.org esp.) (culturacubana.net esp.)