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5 Dinara 1991, Croatia

in Krause book Number: 17a
Years of issue: 08.11.1991
Edition: --
Signatures: Ministar Financija: Marijan Hanžeković (25 July 1990 - 3 August 1991)
Serie: No Serie
Specimen of: 08.11.1991
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 105 х 55
Printer: Zrinski d.d., Čakovec and Tumba Bruk (Crane and Co.), Tumba, Sweden

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

5 Dinara 1991

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Lozenges.

Avers:

5 Dinara 1991

Ruđer Josip BoškovićThe engraving on banknote is made after this portrait of Roger Joseph Boscovich by English portrait and historical painter Robert Edge Pine, 1760.

Roger Joseph Boscovich (Ruđer Josip Bošković, 8 May 1711 - 13 February 1787) was a physicist, astronomer, mathematician, philosopher, diplomat, poet, theologian, Jesuit priest, and a polymath from the city of Dubrovnik in the Republic of Ragusa (today Croatia), who studied and lived in Italy and France where he also published many of his works.

He produced a precursor of atomic theory and made many contributions to astronomy, including the first geometric procedure for determining the equator of a rotating planet from three observations of a surface feature and for computing the orbit of a planet from three observations of its position. In 1753 he also discovered the absence of atmosphere on the Moon.

Right of him is his first work on geodesy.

Boskovic paid great value in their research to practical application of their knowledge. The result of his activity by measuring the shape and size of the Earth was the creation of a new discipline - geodesy. Applying astronomical techniques, he measured the length of one degree of the meridian, and showed that the Earth's shape is different from an ellipsoid of revolution (he coined the term geoid, which is still used today).

In top right corner is the coat of arms of Croatia.

coat

The coat of arms of the Republic of Croatia (Croatian: Grb Republike Hrvatske) consists of one main shield and five smaller shields which form a crown over the main shield. The main coat of arms is a checkerboard (chequy) that consists of 13 red and 12 silver (white) fields. It's also informally known in Croatian as šahovnica ("chessboard", from šah, "chess"). The five smaller shields represent five different historical regions within Croatia.

The checkerboard coat of arms (šahovnica) is first attested as an official symbol of the kingdom of Croatia on an Innsbruck tower depicting the emblem of Maximilian I, Archduke of Austria in 1495. It appeared on a seal from the Cetingrad Charter that confirmed the 1527 election of Ferdinand I, Archduke of Austria as king of Croatia in Cetin.

The origin of the design has often been purported as being medieval. Historic tradition states it to be the arms of Stephen Držislav in the 10th century. A Split stone baptistry from the time of Peter Krešimir IV (1058-1074/5) has engraved falcons that carry something that resembles a chequy on their wings, and the bell tower of the medieval Church of St. Lucy, Jurandvor has a checkerboard pattern carved onto it.

The size of the checkerboard ranges from 3×3 to 8×8, but most commonly 5×5, like in the current design. It was traditionally conjectured that the colours originally represented two ancient Croat states, Red Croatia and White Croatia, but there is no historical evidence to support this.

Denomination in numeral is in lower left corner, in numeral and in words are lower, centered.

Revers:

5 Dinara 1991

CathedralThe twin towers of the Zagreb cathedral and the observation tower on its south side (in the background).

The highlight of the Zagreb Cathedral are the two twin towers 105 meters high - it's almost the height of 40-storey house. The spiers of the cathedral can be seen from anywhere in the city. The towers were affected by the earthquake, but were restored.

The Zagreb Cathedral on Kaptol is a Roman Catholic institution and not only the tallest building in Croatia, but also the most monumental sacral building in Gothic style southeast of the Alps. It is dedicated to the Assumption of Mary and to kings Saint Stephen and Saint Ladislaus. The cathedral is typically Gothic, as is its sacristy, which is of great architectural value. Its prominent spires are considered to be landmarks as they are visible from most parts of the city.

In 1093 when king Ladislaus (1040-1095) moved the bishop's chair from Sisak to Zagreb, he proclaimed the existing church as a cathedral. Construction on the cathedral started shortly after his death and was finished in 1217 and consecrated by king Andrew II of Hungary. The building was destroyed by the Tatars in 1242 but rebuilt by bishop Timotej (1263-1287) a few years later.

At the end of the XV century, the Ottoman Empire invaded Croatia, triggering the construction of fortification walls around the cathedral, some of which are still intact. In the XVII century, a fortified renaissance watchtower was erected on the south side, and was used as a military observation point, because of the Ottoman threat.

The cathedral was severely damaged in the 1880 Zagreb earthquake. The main nave collapsed and the tower was damaged beyond repair. The restoration of the cathedral in the Neo-Gothic style was led by Hermann Bollé, bringing the cathedral to its present form. As part of that restoration, two spires 108 m. (354 ft.) high were raised on the western side, both of which are now in the process of being restored as part of an extensive general restoration of the cathedral.

When facing the portal, the building is 46 meters wide and 108 meters high. The cathedral contains a relief of Cardinal Aloysius Stepinac with Christ done by the Croatian sculptor Ivan Meštrović. The cathedral was visited by Pope Benedict XVI on 5 June 2011 where he celebrated Sunday Vespers and prayed before the tomb of Blessed Aloysius Stepinac.

In top left corner is Croatian coat of arms.

Denomination in numeral is in top left corner. In words and in numeral at bottom.

Comments:

Designers: A. Miski, H. Jarvio.

The banknote was in circulation from 8 November 1991 to 30 May 1994. Graphic design of all Croatian bills of 1993 designed by the artist Zlatko Jakuš.