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1 Dollar 2011, Commemorative, Antarctic

no number in katalog -
Years of issue: 14.12.2011
Edition:
Signatures: D. John Hamilton
Serie: No Serie
Specimen of: 14.12.2011
Material: Plastic coated with a pattern and holograms
Size (mm): 160 х 80
Printer: British American Bank Note Co. Ltd., Montreal

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1 Dollar 2011, Commemorative

Description

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1 Dollar 2011, Commemorative

Emperor penguins.

In order to adapt to extreme cold, Emperor penguins have developed unique forms of behavior. During the cold and dark winter months the male birds which remain at the colony form a compact huddle, also known as the turtle formation, where from tens to thousands of birds lean on each other and gradually shift positions so as each to benefit from the warmth in the core of the huddle. This behavior can be observed in chicks in less extreme temperatures (see section above). Emperor penguins travel long distances over sea ice to reach their colonies and in doing so spend a lot of time sledging on their bellies. The penguins can often be observed sliding single file in groups of 20-30 birds.

In the upper right corner are the stars from Australian flag.

Revers:

1 Dollar 2011, Commemorative

In the top corner is a printed circuit of South Pole with commemorative inscription (in comments).

Emperor penguins.

The emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) is the tallest and heaviest of all living penguin species and is endemic to Antarctica. The male and female are similar in plumage and size, reaching 122 cm (48 in) in height and weighing anywhere from 22 to 45 kg (49 to 99 lb). The dorsal side and head are black and sharply delineated from the white belly, pale-yellow breast and bright-yellow ear patches. Like all penguins it is flightless, with a streamlined body, and wings stiffened and flattened into flippers for a marine habitat.

Its diet consists primarily of fish, but can also include crustaceans, such as krill, and cephalopods, such as squid. In hunting, the species can remain submerged up to 18 minutes, diving to a depth of 535 m (1,755 ft). It has several adaptations to facilitate this, including an unusually structured hemoglobin to allow it to function at low oxygen levels, solid bones to reduce barotrauma, and the ability to reduce its metabolism and shut down non-essential organ functions.

The only penguin species that breeds during the Antarctic winter, emperor penguins trek 50-120 km (31-75 mi) over the ice to breeding colonies which may include thousands of individuals. The female lays a single egg, which is incubated by the male while the female returns to the sea to feed; parents subsequently take turns foraging at sea and caring for their chick in the colony. The lifespan is typically 20 years in the wild, although observations suggest that some individuals may live to 50 years of age.

Comments:

Commemorative Note: "South Pole Centenary 1911-2011".

The first expedition to reach the geographic South Pole was led by the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen. He and four others arrived at the pole on 14 December 1911, five weeks ahead of a British party led by Robert Falcon Scott as part of the Terra Nova Expedition. Amundsen and his team returned safely to their base, and later learned that Scott and his four companions had died on their return journey.

Amundsen's plans had focused on the Arctic and the conquest of the North Pole by means of an extended drift in an icebound ship. He obtained the use of "Fridtjof", Nansen's polar exploration ship "Fram", and undertook extensive fundraising. Preparations for this expedition were disrupted when, in 1909, the rival American explorers Frederick Cook and Robert E. Peary each claimed to have reached the North Pole. Amundsen then changed his plan and began to prepare for a conquest of the South Pole; uncertain of the extent to which the public and his backers would support him, he kept this revised objective secret. When he set out in June 1910, he led even his crew to believe they were embarking on an Arctic drift, and revealed their true Antarctic destination only when Fram was leaving their last port of call, Madeira.

Amundsen made his Antarctic base, "Framheim", in the Bay of Whales on the Great Ice Barrier. After months of preparation, depot-laying and a false start that ended in near-disaster, he and his party set out for the pole in October 1911. In the course of their journey they discovered the Axel Heiberg Glacier, which provided their route to the polar plateau and ultimately to the South Pole. The party's mastery of the use of skis and their expertise with sledge dogs ensured rapid and relatively trouble-free travel. Other achievements of the expedition included the first exploration of King Edward VII Land and an extensive oceanographic cruise.

The expedition's success was widely applauded. The story of Scott's heroic failure overshadowed its achievement in the United Kingdom, unable to accept that a Norwegian had been the first person to set foot in the South Pole, but not in the rest of the world. Amundsen's decision to keep his true plans secret until the last moment was criticized by some. Recent polar historians have more fully recognized the skill and courage of Amundsen's party; the permanent scientific base at the pole bears his name, together with that of Scott.

Informal currency Antarctic continent.

Created by a group of enthusiasts, U.S. citizens, founded in 1996 Antarctic Overseas Bank, despite the fact that according to international agreements, Antarctica is not the territory of any state, and therefore not entitled to its own currency.

Denomination banknotes issued by the Antarctic Overseas Bank from 1996 to present - 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 dollars. According to the organizers shares, each such banknote can be exchanged for U.S. dollars at par and send all proceeds to finance scientific research in Antarctica itself.