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5 Kroner 1956, Norway

in Krause book Number: 30a
Years of issue: 1956
Edition: 110 770 000 (all years)
Signatures: Direksjonens Formann: Erik Brofoss (in office 1954-1970), Hovedkasserer: Erik Thorp
Serie: Fourth Series
Specimen of: 1953
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 125 х 70
Printer: Norges Bank, Oslo (till 2008)

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

5 Kroner 1956

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Repeated denomination numerals 5.

Avers:

5 Kroner 1956

Fridtjof Wedel-Jarlsberg NansenThe engraving on banknote made, approximately, from this photo of Fridtjof Wedel-Jarlsberg Nansen.

Fridtjof Nansen (10 October 1861 – 13 May 1930) was a Norwegian explorer, scientist, diplomat, humanitarian and Nobel Peace Prize laureate. In his youth a champion skier and ice skater, he led the team that made the first crossing of the Greenland interior in 1888, cross-country skiing on the island, and won international fame after reaching a record northern latitude of 86°14′ during his North Pole expedition of 1893-1896. Although he retired from exploration after his return to Norway, his techniques of polar travel and his innovations in equipment and clothing influenced a generation of subsequent Arctic and Antarctic expeditions.

Nansen studied zoology at the Royal Frederick University in Christiania (renamed Oslo in 1925), and later worked as a curator at the Bergen Museum where his research on the central nervous system of lower marine creatures earned him a doctorate and helped establish modern theories of neurology. After 1896 his main scientific interest switched to oceanography; in the course of his research he made many scientific cruises, mainly in the North Atlantic, and contributed to the development of modern oceanographic equipment. As one of his country's leading citizens, in 1905 Nansen spoke out for the ending of Norway's union with Sweden, and was instrumental in persuading Prince Carl of Denmark to accept the throne of the newly independent Norway. Between 1906 and 1908 he served as the Norwegian representative in London, where he helped negotiate the Integrity Treaty that guaranteed Norway's independent status.

In the final decade of his life, Nansen devoted himself primarily to the League of Nations, following his appointment in 1921 as the League's High Commissioner for Refugees. In 1922 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his work on behalf of the displaced victims of the First World War and related conflicts. Among the initiatives he introduced was the "Nansen passport" for stateless persons, a certificate recognised by more than 50 countries. He worked on behalf of refugees until his sudden death in 1930, after which the League established the Nansen International Office for Refugees to ensure that his work continued. This office received the Nobel Peace Prize for 1938. Nansen was honoured by many nations, and his name is commemorated in numerous geographical features, particularly in the polar regions.

coat Norway

Under his portrait is the coat of arms of Norway.

The coat of arms of Norway.

A golden lion on a red shield was adopted in or before the early part of the XIII century. In the late part of the same century, a silver axe was added. In continuous use since then, the coat of arms is one of the oldest state coats of arms in the world.

The official blazon is: Gules, a lion rampant or, crowned or and bearing an axe with blade argent.

Among the state coats of arms that are still in use today, the Coat of Arms of Norway is among the oldest in Europe and even world-wide. It is known since the early XIII century, when it served as the coat of arms of the kings of the Sverre dynasty. It is told that Sverre, who was King between 1184 and 1202, had a lion in his coat of arms. This coat of arms appears in 1225, when it was used by Earl Skule Bårdsson, who had relations to the royal family. A coat of arms with a lion was also used by Haakon the Young Haakonson, who was King between 1240 and 1257. This was in 1250. Haakon the Young's father, King Haakon the Old Haakonson, had a lion in his seal. This lion, however, does not appear in a coat of arms, but in the shape of a small lion which lies between the King's feet. This might be the same lion that Earl Skule and Haakon the Young used in their seals. On the other hand, lions were a frequently used symbol of kings and royal power.

Snorre Sturlason claims that a golden lion on a red background was used already in 1103 by King Magnus III, the son of King Olav III. In 1894, historian Gustav Storm concluded that this is ahistorical. Storm explained that the claimed lion in King Magnus's coat of arms is unknown both in the older Saga literature and in other contemporary sources. It is possible that Snorre, who wrote under the instruction of the King, attributed King Sverre's coat of arms to earlier Kings of Norway.

Approximately in 1280, either King Magnus VI (dead in 1280) or the guardianship of his son Eric Magnuson let the lion be equipped with a crown of gold and in the foremost paws an axe of silver. The axe was a symbol of Saint Olaf, i.e. King Olaf II, and by inserting it into the coat of arms it was symbolized that the King was the rightful heir and descendant of the "Eternal King of Norway" (Latin: Rex Perpetuus Norvegiae).

Denomination in numeral and in words is centered.

Revers:

5 Kroner 1956

Lofotenthe central image on banknote is the painting by Norwegian painter Axel Revold, finished in 1920, "Fishing station in Lofoten". Oil on canvas, Size: 120х100 cm. Now is in a private collection.

Axel Revold

Axel Revold (24 December 1887 – 11 April 1962) was a Norwegian painter, illustrator, and art professor at the Norwegian National Academy of Fine Arts for twenty years. He was highly decorated for his merits.

Revold was born in Ålesund as the son of merchant Julius Revold and Johanne Hjelpsten. He was married to Ingrid Müller from 1915 to 1928. From 1929 he was married to painter Irmelin Nansen, the daughter of Fridtjof Nansen and Eva Nansen. He is the father of artist Dagny Hald. He died in Bærum in 1962.

Revold initiated engineering studies in Kristiania in 1906, and also followed evening courses at Den kgl. Tegneskole in Kristiania. In 1908 he discontinued his engineering education and moved to Paris as a student of Henri Matisse for two years. He was also inspired by Paul Cézanne and Kees van Dongen.

Among Revold's paintings are Apasjer from 1912 and Fiskere på Middelhavet from 1914. He is represented in National Gallery of Norway with more than twenty paintings, including "Italienerinne" from 1913, "Fiskevær" from 1916, Morgen from 1927 and "Fiskerflåten drar ut" from 1935. His painting Kongens hjemkomst from 1945 is located at the Royal Palace in Oslo. He also painted frescos and decorated churches.

Revold was appointed professor at the Norwegian National Academy of Fine Arts from 1925 to 1946. In 1941, during the occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany, Revold had to leave the academy. Together with fellow professor Jean Heiberg they were secretly running an undercover art academy in Oslo. Their academy was called "The Factory" (Norwegian: Fabrikken), after its first location in a closed corset factory. They were later located at Lauritz Falk's home and at Johannes Sejersted Bødtker's atelier at Holmenkollen.

In 1955 he was awarded the Prince Eugen Medal and decorated Commander of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav. He was a Commander of the Danish Order of the Dannebrog, the Swedish Order of the Polar Star, and the Finnish Order of the White Rose. He was Officer of the French l'Instruction Publique, and a Knight of the Legion of Honour.

LofotenLofoten is an archipelago and a traditional district in the county of Nordland, Norway. Lofoten is known for a distinctive scenery with dramatic mountains and peaks, open sea and sheltered bays, beaches and untouched lands. Though lying within the Arctic Circle, the archipelago experiences one of the world's largest elevated temperature anomalies relative to its high latitude.

Lofoten (Norse Lófót) was originally the old name of the island Vestvågøya. The first element is ló (i.e., "lynx") and the last element is derived from Norse fótr (i.e., "foot"), as the shape of the island must have been compared with a foot of a lynx. (The old name of the neighbouring island Flakstadøya was Vargfót, "the foot of a wolf", from vargr "wolf". See also Ofoten.)

Lofoten"There is evidence of human settlement extending back at least 11,000 yrs in Lofoten, and the earliest archaeological sites ... are only about 5,500 yrs old, at the transition from the early to late Stone Age." Iron Age agriculture, livestock, and significant human habitation can be traced back to ~250 BCE.

The town of Vågan (Norse Vágar) is the first known town formation in northern Norway. It existed in the early Viking Age, maybe earlier, and was located on the southern coast on eastern Lofoten, near today's village Kabelvåg in Vågan municipality. However, the Lofotr Viking Museum with the reconstructed 83-meter-long longhouse (the largest known) is located near Borg on Vestvågøy, which has many archeological finds from the Iron Age and Viking Age.

LofotenThe islands have for more than 1,000 years been the centre of great cod fisheries, especially in winter, when the cod migrates south from the Barents Sea and gathers in Lofoten to spawn. Bergen in southwestern Norway was for a long time the hub for further export south to different parts of Europe, particularly so when trade was controlled by the Hanseatic League. In the lowland areas, particularly Vestvågøy, agriculture plays a significant role, as it has done since the Bronze Age.

Lofotr was originally the name of the island of Vestvågøy only. Later it became the name of the chain of islands. The chain of islands with its pointed peaks looks like a lynx foot from the mainland. In Norwegian, it is always a singular. Another name one might come across, is "Lofotveggen" or the Lofoten wall. The archipelago looks like a closed wall when seen from elevated points around Bodø or when arriving from the sea, some 100 km long, and 800-1,000 m. high.

In 1941, the islands were raided by British Commandos during Operation Claymore in March and a subsequent diversionary attack to support the Vaagso raid in December.

LofotenIn lower left corner are the anchor and two Atlantic salmons (Salmo salar). Apparently, the composition symbolizes the fishery.

The Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a salmon in the family Salmonidae. It is found in the northern Atlantic Ocean, in rivers that flow into the north Atlantic and, due to human introduction, in the north Pacific.

Other names used to reference Atlantic salmon are: bay salmon, black salmon, caplin-scull salmon, Sebago salmon, silver salmon, fiddler, or outside salmon. At different points in their maturation and life cycle, they are known as parr, smolt, grilse, grilt, kelt, slink, and spring salmon. Atlantic salmon that do not journey to sea, usually because of past human interference, are known as landlocked salmon or ouananiche.

The distribution of Atlantic salmon depends on water temperature. Because of global warming, some southern populations in Spain and other warm countries are expected to be extirpated soon. Before human influence, the natural breeding grounds of Atlantic salmon were rivers in Europe and the eastern coast of North America. When North America was settled by Europeans, eggs were brought on trains to the west coast and introduced into the rivers there. Other attempts to bring Atlantic salmon to new settlements were made; e.g. New Zealand. But since there are no suitable ocean currents on New Zealand, most of these introductions failed. There is at least one landlocked population of Atlantic salmon on New Zealand, where the fish never go out to sea.

Denomination in numeral and in words is at the lower part of banknote.

Comments:

Invalid from 13.07.1999