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1 Pound 1966, Jamaica

in Krause book Number: 51Cd
Years of issue: 1966 - 1967
Edition: 3 270 412
Signatures: Governor: Mr. Richard Thomas Pomonby Hall (12.1964 - 06.1967)
Serie: 1964 Issue
Specimen of: 1964
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 148 x 67
Printer: TDLR (Thomas de la Rue & Company), London

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

1 Pound 1966

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Pineapple.

Avers:

1 Pound 1966

HM The Queen HM The QueenHer Majesty The Queen Elizabeth II. The photo made in 1952 by photographer Dorothy Wilding.

Adapted from a classic Dorothy Wilding photograph, this is one of only a few portraits of The Queen to show her facing left. Her Majesty is wearing:

Tiara Girls of Great Britain and Ireland

Queen Mary’s "Girls of Great Britain and Ireland" Tiara.

Queen Mary received this tiara as a wedding gift in 1893, from a committee representing "the girls of Great Britain and Ireland". The funds for the purchase of the tiara were raised by a committee, formed by Lady Eve Greville. The tiara was purchased from Garrard, the London jeweler.

It featured pearls on top and a detachable base; Mary removed the pearls. She gave it to her granddaughter, Princess Elizabeth, as a wedding present in 1947. The Queen originally wore it without the base before reuniting the pieces in 1969.

Said to be light and easy to wear, the Girls of Great Britain and Ireland Tiara seems to be the Queen's favorite - she's said to call it "Granny's tiara", and it is her most frequently worn diadem.

The "Girls of Great Britain and Ireland" Tiara can be worn with or without a bandeau base and, in this portrait, the tiara is set into its base. (Portrait of Dorothy Wilding, 1952, shows the Tiara being worn without the base). (From her Majesty's jewel vault)

Occasionally, HM The Queen opts for a simple single pearl stud, an option she's used for years. These are usually seen at less formal occasions, or private ones, and were more common in her earlier years. Being such a simple design, it is often impossible to tell if appearances through the years are a single pair or different pairs (it seems highly likely she has more than one pair in her collection), and so they will all be grouped here regardless. (From Her Majesty's Jewel Vault)

coat of arms

Lower, centered, is the coat of arms.

The coat of arms was first granted to Jamaica in 1661. Designed by William Sandcroft, the then Archbishop of Canterbury, it shows a male and female Taino Indian, standing on either side of the shield, which bears a red cross with five golden pineapples superimposed on it. The crest is a Jamaican crocodile surmounting the royal helmet and mantlings. The original Latin motto Indus Uterque Serviet Uni was changed to one in English: "Out of Many, One People" in 1962, the year of Jamaica's independence.

Denominations in numerals are in top left and lower right corners. Centered in words and in numeral.

Revers:

1 Pound 1966

Scene of harvesting sugar cane in Jamaica. On the field is tractor Caterpillar D2 with a special trailer to transport sugar cane from the field.

Sugar has had a long and diversified history in Jamaica. As a matter of convenience its history can be divided into two periods:

a) the Pre-Emancipation period, i.e. up to 1834, and

b) the Post-Emancipation period, from 1834 to the present time.

Pre-Emancipation.

The industry had its origin in the early XVI century under Spanish colonial rule when sugar cane was shipped from Haiti to the island in 1509. During the next century very little emphasis was placed on large-scale cultivation of sugar cane and production was undertaken only for domestic use. The Spaniards were unwilling to work on the estates after the Arawaks were decimated. Sugar production became an important activity after the British took control of the island in 1655. In the XVII and XVIII centuries, under the British plantation system, the island became the major producer and leading exporter of sugar in the world.

Post-Emancipation.

The early post-emancipation period saw the change from the use of cheap slave labour to that of indentured labour (Indians and Chinese) and the introduction of more capital-intensive methods of production. A number of significant changes have occurred in the industry during the 494 years of sugar production in Jamaica. In addition to those mentioned above the number of factories, which was 140 at the beginning of the XX century, was reduced to 27 in 1943 and even further afterwards.

The industry achieved its highest level of production in 1965 when 514,825 tonnes of sugar were produced. Since then sugar production has trended down, declining to 125,818 last year. It is anticipated that with the refurbishing of factories and aggressive replanting and ratoon-maintenance programmes cane and sugar production should begin to trend upwards.

The industry is currently structured around six estates with operating factories, which process the sugar cane into raw sugar and molasses. Four of the factories are directly associated with distillation. (www.jamaicasugar.org)

I was interested to determine, approximately, the model of tractor depicted on banknote.

For assistance in determining this model, especially thanks to Mr. Jeff Huff. Here is his website - www.huffequipment.com.

1 Pound 1964 Jamaica 1 Pound 1964 JamaicaOn banknote - tractor Caterpillar D-2 at work.

"Caterpillar D-2" is a tractor manufactured by Caterpillar. It was introduced in 1938 and was the smallest diesel powered track-type tractor manufactured by Caterpillar.

The "Caterpillar D-2" was manufactured by Caterpillar Inc. in the factory that was located in Peoria, Illinois, USA. It stopped being manufactured in the year of 1957. The base frame of this model of tractor is a crawler. The weight of the "Caterpillar D-2" ranges from about 7420 to 8536 pounds depending upon the year it was manufactured. There are 5 forward gears and 1 reverse gear. Caterpillar manufactured a total of 26,454 D2 model tractors. Caterpillar began manufacturing new tractors, including the D2 model, in response to the "New Deal" programs that were initiated by President Franklin Roosevelt to stimulate America's economy.

1 Pound 1964 JamaicaThe tractor hauling the trailer for transporting sugar cane from the field, made by "Unicab" company.

These trailers are manufactured for the bulk transportation of loose sugarcane, normally direct infield to mill.

The trailers are designed to be drawn by a tractor, in most cases a 4x4. Depending on the loading and mode of cutting of the cane, "Unicab" has developed three basic designs to suit each application. In most circumstances the trailers are fitted with chains and spillar bars for the off loading at the various mills.

The trailers are all fitted with a rubber type walking beam suspension that boasts no moving parts and very inexpensive to maintain. The suspension has no springs or air bags, which therefore provides a very stable footing while the trailers operate infield.

The trailers are designed to be pulled in a tandem configuration and are fitted with air brake systems. The optional quick coupler, fitted to the rear of the front trailer, is unique to "Unicab" as this is improves the time taken to re-couple, when the trailers are split for the in-field operation.

The trailers have various types of tires, depending on customer’s requests; generally the combined payload achieved on the trailers is approximately 30 tons. (www.sugarcane.co.za)

Denominations in numerals are in top corners, in words - in lower corners.

Comments:

The signature on banknote belongs to:

governor

Governor of the Bank of Jamaica Mr. Richard Thomas Ponsonby Hall.

Richard Thomas Ponsonby Hall, the second governor of the Bank of Jamaica, was born in England on 12 January 1927. He was educated at Tonbridge School in Kent, England, and graduated from King's College, Cambridge in 1951, with a degree in Modern Languages.

On graduation, Hall joined the Bank of England where he was assigned to the Cashier's Department before moving to the Overseas Department (West Europe and North American Affairs). Between 1955 and 1957, he was seconded to the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) where he worked in the Monetary and Economic Department. On his return to the Bank of England, he was again assigned to the Overseas Department and, in 1963, was seconded to the Bank of Jamaica as General Manager.

In December 1964, Hall acted as Governor and was confirmed in the position in April 1966.

Following his return to the Bank of England in 1967, he was appointed Assistant Chief, Overseas Office. He became an Advisor in 1971, but left the Bank in that year for the BIS, where he remained until his retirement in 1996. (Bank of Jamaica)

Engraving made by TDLR Engraving made by Bradbury WilkinsonThis image of Her Majesty by Thomas De La Rue is more pleasing to the eye than the Bradbury Wilkinson engraving. A less distinct parting of the hair, a better depiction of her lips, and adjustments to shading all improve the appearance of Queen Elizabeth.

The portrait, used on the Ceylonese notes, and prepared by Bradbury Wilkinson, has a distinct parting of the Her Majesty's hair. In depicting her lips there is a slight distortion, which exaggerates her mouth.