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25 Lei 1966, Romania

in Krause book Number: 95a
Years of issue: 01.11.1966
Edition: --
Signatures: no signature
Serie: 1966 Issue
Specimen of: 1966
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 140 х 70
Printer: Imprimeria Bancii Nationale a Romaniei, Bucuresti

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

25 Lei 1966

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Rhombuses.

Avers:

25 Lei 1966

Tudor Vladimirescu Tudor VladimirescuThe engraving on banknote is made after this portrait of Tudor Vladimirescu by Theodor Aman, approx. in 1880.

Tudor Vladimirescu (c. 1780 - June 7 [O.S. May 27] 1821) was a Wallachian Romanian revolutionary hero, the leader of the Wallachian uprising of 1821 and of the Pandur militia. He is also known as Tudor din Vladimiri (Tudor of Vladimiri) or - occasionally - as Domnul Tudor (Voivode Tudor).

Tudor was born in Vladimiri, Gorj County (in the region of Oltenia) in a family of landed peasants (mazili); his birth year is usually given as 1780, but this is still debated. At the age of 12, he was sent to Craiova, in service to boyar Ioan Glogoveanu, where he would later learn rhetoric, grammar and the Greek language. He became administrator of the boyar's estate and, in 1806, was named vătaf (leader of the local militias) at Cloşani. Tudor's experience as a servant made him familiar with customs, habits and objectives of landowners; this insight helped him walk the fine line between conflicting interests of boyars and peasants in the first months of the uprising against the Phanariotes. While leader of a mainly peasant movement, Tudor did his best not to antagonize the elite, punishing any destruction of property.

Tudor enrolled in the Russian army and took part in the Russo-Turkish War, 1806-1812. Consequently, he was awarded the Order of St. Vladimir 3rd degree and given Russian protection and immunity from prosecution under both Wallachian and Ottoman legislation (see Sudiţi). This contributed to Tudor's decisions throughout the uprising, alongside his belief that Russia was backing his actions. After the war, Tudor returned to Oltenia. He traveled briefly to Vienna, in 1814, in order to attend a lawsuit involving Glogoveanu's wife's patrimony. The trip coincided with the Peace Congress, and it is believed that Vladimirescu followed the treaties' outcome.

Back in the country in 1815, Tudor learned that Ada Kaleh Ottoman garrison, who roamed Mehedinti and Gorj, had also destroyed his household from Cerneţi.

From 1812 to 1821, Vladimirescu slowly built a follower base. The Pandurs respected his military skills, and many sources point out his charisma and outstanding negotiating abilities. He would also have been familiarised with the outcomes of the First and Second Serbian Uprising.

Theodor AmanTheodor Aman (20 March 1831 - 19 August 1891) was a Romanian painter, engraver and art professor of Armenian ancestry. He mostly produced genre and history scenes.

His father was a cavalry commander from Craiova but he was born in Câmpulung, where his family had fled to escape the plague. After displaying an early affinity for art, he took his first lessons with Constantin Lecca and Carol Wallenstein de Vella (1795-1863) at Carol I National College. In 1850, he went to Paris, where he studied briefly with Michel Martin Drolling then, after Drolling's death, with François-Édouard Picot. While there, he became part of the Romanian revolutionary circles. Three years later, he had his first exhibition at the Salon.

After that, he went to Istanbul in an effort to sell some paintings to the Sultan and visited Sevastopol during the Crimean War, creating history paintings with themes related to Romania's nationalist aspirations. In 1855, he presented one of his best-known works, depicting the Battle of Alma, at the Exposition Universelle.

When he returned home, he was knighted by Prince Barbu Dimitrie Știrbei and presented with a scholarship to continue his studies in Paris, where he came under the influence of the Barbizon school. After a brief stay in Rome, he returned to Bucharest.

In 1864, he and Gheorghe Tattarescu convinced Romania's ruler, Alexandru Ioan Cuza, to establish the "National School of Fine Arts" (now known as the Bucharest National University of Arts). Aman was appointed its first Director and held that position until his death. In 1908, his home/workshop became a museum.

In 2014, to celebrate the 150th anniversary of the school's founding, Poșta Română issued a commemorative stamp with Aman's likeness.

The coat of arms of the Socialist Republic of Romania is centered.

coat

Represents afforested mountains, over which the sun is arising. On the left side is an oil derrick. The coat of arms is surrounded by a wreath of wheat ears. On top of the coat of arms id a five-pointed star. On the bottom of the coat of arms, the wheat ears are wraped with a tricolor ribbon on which is written: "REPUBLICA SOCIALISTĂ ROMÂNIA".

Denominations in numerals are in three corners. In words lower (right).

Revers:

25 Lei 1966

Petrobrazi OMVPetromPresumably, Petrobrazi refinery near city Ploieşti (the image of 1962).

Petrobrazi Refinery is one of the largest Romanian refineries and one of the largest in Eastern Europe, located in Ploieşti, Prahova County, having as a main activity the processing of Romanian oil but also has a separate unit specialised in processing chemical products. The refinery has two processing modules with a nominal capacity of 3.5 million tonnes/year each and a total capacity of 7 million tonnes/year. Now only one of the two modules is operational and has a capacity of 4.5 million tonnes/year or 90,000 bbl/d (14,000 m3/d), 1 million tonnes larger due to an investment program from 1999-2000. The facility is connected by pipeline to virtually all of the oil fields in Romania by an extensive pipe network and to the Port of Constanţa by a pipeline with a capacity of 10,000 tonnes/day.

Petrobrazi was founded in 1934 in a strategic industrial zone of 440 hectares (4.4 km2) located in Southern Romania, near Ploieşti. The first oil processing capacity was established in 1934 and had a processing capacity of 300,000 tonnes/year. In 1962 Petrobrazi becomes the first modern refinery in Romania with the addition of the catalytic cracking and reforming processes. In 1965 the refinery was integrated with the Petrochemical Complex.

In 1997 the state established "OMV Petrom" as the national oil company also including the Petrobrazi Refinery. In 2003 the refinery becomes the first facility of its kind in Romania that has its own cogeneration power plant. With its nominal processing capacity of 7 million tonnes/year, Petrobrazi is the largest Romanian refinery. It is also the most efficient refinery in Romania having a Nelson complexity index of 11.4.

Denominations in numerals are on the left side and in lower right corner. In words lower.

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